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      The Role of Physical Activity in the CKD Setting

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          Abstract

          A sedentary lifestyle contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and probably cancer in the general population; this cluster of disease may be defined the diseasome of physical inactivity. Also in CKD/ESRD patients physical activity is strikingly low. As a result of growing evidence suggestive of cardiovascular benefit among the CKD population with exercise, the National Kidney Foundation recommended counseling by nephrologists to increase patients' levels of physical activity in their guideline about management of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, to maintain the well-being and functional capacity of renal patients attention should be directed toward maintaining strength and aerobic fitness as well as focusing on renal function and anemia or other comorbidities. All CKD/ESRD patients should be counseled and regularly encouraged by nephrology and dialysis staff to increase their level of physical activity.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Physical activity levels in patients on hemodialysis and healthy sedentary controls.

          Patients on dialysis have reduced exercise tolerance compared with age-matched sedentary controls. The reasons for this debility have not been fully elucidated, but physical inactivity could be a contributing factor. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls and to explore clinical correlates of physical activity level in a group of hemodialysis patients. Thirty-four hemodialysis patients and 80 healthy sedentary individuals participated in the study. Physical activity was measured for seven days with a three-dimensional accelerometer and with an activity questionnaire. Vector magnitude values from the accelerometer for the dialysis and control subjects were 104,718 +/- 9631 and 161,255 +/- 6792 arbitrary units per day, respectively (P < 0.0001, mean +/- SEM). The estimated energy expenditure values derived from the questionnaire were 33.6 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day and 36.2 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day (P = 0.002). The difference between patients on dialysis and controls increased with advancing age. Among the dialysis subjects, some measures of nutritional status correlated with physical activity level, including serum albumin concentration (r = 0.58, P = 0.003), serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.37, P = 0. 03), and phase angle derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (r = 0.40, P = 0.02). Patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls, and this difference is more pronounced among older individuals. There is an association between the level of physical activity and nutritional status among patients on dialysis. These findings are of great concern, given the trend toward increasing age in incident dialysis patients and the well-known association between inactivity and increased mortality in the general population.
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            Exercise in the end-stage renal disease population.

            Many of the known benefits of exercise in the general population are of particular relevance to the ESRD population. In addition, the poor physical functioning that is experienced by patients who are on dialysis is potentially addressable through exercise interventions. The study of exercise in the ESRD population dates back almost 30 yr, and numerous interventions, including aerobic training, resistance exercise training, and combined training programs, have reported beneficial effects. Recently, interventions during hemodialysis sessions have become more popular and have been shown to be safe. The risks of exercise in this population have not been rigorously studied, but there have been no reports of serious injury as a result of participation in an exercise training program. It is time that we incorporate exercise into the routine care of patients who are on dialysis, but identification of an optimal training regimen or regimens, according to patient characteristics or needs, is still needed to facilitate implementation of exercise programs.
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              Review of muscle wasting associated with chronic kidney disease.

              Muscle wasting increases the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been attributed to malnutrition. In most patients, this is an incorrect diagnosis because simply feeding more protein aggravates uremia. Instead, there are complex mechanisms that stimulate loss of skeletal muscle, involving activation of mediators that stimulate the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Identified mediators of muscle protein breakdown include inflammation, metabolic acidosis, angiotensin II, and neural and hormonal factors that cause defects in insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IFG-I) intracellular signaling processes. Abnormalities in insulin/IGF-I signaling activate muscle protein degradation in the UPS and caspase-3, a protease that disrupts the complex structure of muscle proteins to provide substrates for the UPS. During the cleavage of muscle proteins, caspase-3 leaves behind a characteristic 14-kD actin fragment in the insoluble fraction of muscle, and characterization of this fragment identifies the presence of muscle catabolism. Thus, it could become a marker of excessive muscle wasting, providing a method for early detection of muscle wasting. Another consequence of activation of caspase-3 in muscle is stimulation of the activity of the proteasome, which increases the degradation of muscle proteins. Treatment strategies for blocking muscle wasting include correction of metabolic acidosis, which can suppress muscle protein losses in patients with CKD who are or are not being treated by dialysis. Correcting acidosis also improves bone metabolism in CKD and hence should be a goal of therapy. Exercise training is a potentially beneficial approach, but more information is needed to optimize exercise regimens. Replacing testosterone deficits can improve muscle mass in men, but dosing and side effects in women have not been adequately tested. Although insulin resistance occurs early in the course of CKD, there are no effective means of correcting it. Consequently, new therapies that can safely suppress muscle wasting are needed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-318-02734-1
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                August 2014
                29 July 2014
                : 39
                : 2-3
                : 97-106
                Affiliations
                aNephrology and Dialysis Unit, Research Institute “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza” Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo; bNephrologist, Bologna, Italy
                Article
                355783 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:97-106
                10.1159/000355783
                25117619
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Categories
                Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Physical activity, Dialysis, Chronic kidney disease

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