Blog
About

2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Tuberculosis and Chronic Renal Disease : TB AND CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE

      , ,

      Seminars in Dialysis

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 56

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children. American Thoracic Society and The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

          Treatment of Tuberculosis. 1. A 6-mo regimen consisting of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide given for 2 mo followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 mo is the preferred treatment for patients with fully susceptible organisms who adhere to treatment. Ethambutol (or streptomycin in children too young to be monitored for visual acuity) should be included in the initial regimen until the results of drug susceptibility studies are available, unless there is little possibility of drug resistance (i.e., there is less than 4% primary resistance to isoniazid in the community, and the patient has had no previous treatment with antituberculosis medications, is not from a country with a high prevalence of drug resistance, and has no known exposure to a drug-resistant case). This four-drug, 6-mo regimen is effective even when the infecting organism is resistant to INH. This recommendation applies to both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. However, in the presence of HIV infection it is critically important to assess the clinical and bacteriologic response. If there is evidence of a slow or suboptimal response, therapy should be prolonged as judged on a case by case basis. 2. Alternatively, a 9-mo regimen of isoniazid and rifampin is acceptable for persons who cannot or should not take pyrazinamide. Ethambutol (or streptomycin in children too young to be monitored for visual acuity) should also be included until the results of drug susceptibility studies are available, unless there is little possibility of drug resistance (see Section 1 above). If INH resistance is demonstrated, rifampin and ethambutol should be continued for a minimum of 12 mo. 3. Consideration should be given to treating all patients with directly observed therapy (DOT). 4. Multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (i.e., resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin) presents difficult treatment problems. Treatment must be individualized and based on susceptibility studies. In such cases, consultation with an expert in tuberculosis is recommended. 5. Children should be managed in essentially the same ways as adults using appropriately adjusted doses of the drugs. This document addresses specific important differences between the management of adults and children. 6. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis should be managed according to the principles and with the drug regimens outlined for pulmonary tuberculosis, except for children who have miliary tuberculosis, bone/joint tuberculosis, or tuberculous meningitis who should receive a minimum of 12 mo of therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Impaired cellular immune function in patients with end-stage renal failure.

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to tuberculosis.

              Vitamin D, a modulator of macrophage function, can activate human anti-mycobacterial activity. Vitamin D deficiency is therefore associated with a higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection, as indicated by several observations. First, TB tends to occur during the colder seasons when cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D from sun exposure is reduced and serum vitamin D levels are lower. Second, patients with untreated TB, particularly those from a temperate climate, have lower serum vitamin D levels than healthy subjects. Third, the incidence of TB is higher among subjects with relatively low serum vitamin D levels, such as the elderly, uremic patients, and Asian immigrants in the U.K.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Seminars in Dialysis
                Wiley
                08940959
                January 2003
                January 20 2003
                : 16
                : 1
                : 38-44
                Article
                10.1046/j.1525-139X.2003.03010.x
                © 2003

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                Comments

                Comment on this article