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      Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVES

          To investigate whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a suitable predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has already been investigated. Its relevance as a predictor of the appearance and worsening of coronary arterial disease is also well known. However, the same is not true regarding peripheral arterial disease.

          METHOD

          Eighty-five consecutive patients with an ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) < 0.9 and the presence of either intermittent claudication or critical lower leg ischemia were included. The plasma level of IgG autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein was evaluated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were categorized into quartiles according to the ankle-brachial pressure index (a marker of peripheral arterial disease severity), and significant differences were investigated with the Kruskal-Wallis test.

          RESULTS

          There was no significant difference between the quartiles for this population (p = 0.33). No correlation was found between the ankle-brachial pressure index and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in subjects with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is not a good predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity.

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          Most cited references101

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          Oxidized phospholipids, Lp(a) lipoprotein, and coronary artery disease.

          Lp(a) lipoprotein binds proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. We investigated whether levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) measured with use of monoclonal antibody E06 reflect the presence and extent of obstructive coronary artery disease, defined as a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter. Levels of oxidized LDL and Lp(a) lipoprotein were measured in a total of 504 patients immediately before coronary angiography. Levels of oxidized LDL are reported as the oxidized phospholipid content per particle of apolipoprotein B-100 (oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio). Measurements of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels were skewed toward lower values, and the values for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio correlated strongly with those for Lp(a) lipoprotein (r=0.83, P<0.001). In the entire cohort, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels showed a strong and graded association with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (i.e., the number of vessels with a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter) (P<0.001). Among patients 60 years of age or younger, those in the highest quartiles for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels had odds ratios for coronary artery disease of 3.12 (P<0.001) and 3.64 (P<0.001), respectively, as compared with patients in the lowest quartile. The combined effect of hypercholesterolemia and being in the highest quartiles of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio (odds ratio, 16.8; P<0.001) and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels (odds ratio, 14.2; P<0.001) significantly increased the probability of coronary artery disease among patients 60 years of age or younger. In the entire study group, the association of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio with obstructive coronary artery disease was independent of all clinical and lipid measures except one, Lp(a) lipoprotein. However, among patients 60 years of age or younger, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio remained an independent predictor of coronary artery disease. Circulating levels of oxidized LDL are strongly associated with angiographically documented coronary artery disease, particularly in patients 60 years of age or younger. These data suggest that the atherogenicity of Lp(a) lipoprotein may be mediated in part by associated proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Elevated levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein show a positive relationship with the severity of acute coronary syndromes.

            There is accumulating data that acute coronary syndromes relate to recent onset activation of inflammation affecting atherosclerotic plaques. Increased blood levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) could play a role in these circumstances. Ox-LDL levels were measured in 135 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n=45), unstable angina pectoris (UAP; n=45), and stable angina pectoris (SAP; n=45) and in 46 control subjects using a sandwich ELISA method. In addition, 33 atherectomy specimens obtained from a different cohort of patients with SAP (n=10) and UAP (n=23) were studied immunohistochemically for ox-LDL. In AMI patients, ox-LDL levels were significantly higher than in patients with UAP (P<0.0005) or SAP (P<0.0001) or in controls (P<0.0001) (AMI, 1.95+/-1.42 ng/5 microgram LDL protein; UAP, 1.19+/-0.74 ng/5 microgram LDL protein; SAP, 0.89+/-0.48 ng/5 microgram LDL protein; control, 0.58+/-0.23 ng/5 microgram LDL protein). Serum levels of total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol did not differ among these patient groups. In the atherectomy specimens, the surface area containing ox-LDL-positive macrophages was significantly higher in patients with UAP than in those with SAP (P<0.0001). This study demonstrates that ox-LDL levels show a significant positive correlation with the severity of acute coronary syndromes and that the more severe lesions also contain a significantly higher percentage of ox-LDL-positive macrophages. These observations suggest that increased levels of ox-LDL relate to plaque instability in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions.
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              High Ratio of Triglycerides to HDL-Cholesterol Predicts Extensive Coronary Disease

              An abnormal ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) indicates an atherogenic lipid profile and a risk for the development of coronary disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between lipid levels, specifically TG/HDL-c, and the extent of coronary disease. METHODS High-risk patients (n = 374) submitted for coronary angiography had their lipid variables measured and coronary disease extent scored by the Friesinger index. RESULTS The subjects consisted of 220 males and 154 females, age 57.2 ± 11.1 years, with total cholesterol of 210± 50.3 mg/dL, triglycerides of 173.8 ± 169.8 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) of 40.1 ± 12.8 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) of 137.3 ± 46.2 mg/dL, TG/HDL-c of 5.1 ± 5.3, and a Friesinger index of 6.6 ± 4.7. The relationship between the extent of coronary disease (dichotomized by a Friesenger index of 5 and lipid levels (normal vs. abnormal) was statistically significant for the following: triglycerides, odds ratio of 2.02 (1.31–3.1; p = 0.0018); HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.21 (1.42–3.43; p = 0.0005); and TG/HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.01(1.30–3.09; p = 0.0018). However, the relationship was not significant between extent of coronary disease and total cholesterol [1.25 (0.82–1.91; p = 0.33)] or LDL-c [1.47 (0.96–2.25; p = 0.0842)]. The chi-square for linear trends for Friesinger > 4 and lipid quartiles was statistically significant for triglycerides (p = 0.0017), HDL-c (p = 0.0001), and TG/HDL-c (p = 0.0018), but not for total cholesterol (p = 0.393) or LDL-c (p = 0.0568). The multivariate analysis by logistic regression OR gave 1.3 ± 0.79 (p = .0001) for TG/HDL-c, 0.779 ± 0.074 (p = .0001) for HDL-c, and 1.234 ± 0.097 (p = 0.03) for LDL. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that only TG/HDL-c and HDL-c were useful for detecting extensive coronary disease, with the former more strongly associated with disease. CONCLUSIONS Although some lipid variables were associated with the extent of coronary disease, the ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol showed the strongest association with extent.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinics (Sao Paulo)
                Clinics
                Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
                1807-5932
                1980-5322
                April 2010
                : 65
                : 4
                : 383-387
                Affiliations
                [I ]Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - São Paulo/SP, Brazil.
                [II ]Department of Immunology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - São Paulo/SP, Brazil. Tel.: 55 11 3071.1464, Email: aezerati@ 123456uol.com.br
                Author notes

                Work performed at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - São Paulo/SP, Brazil.

                Article
                cln_65p383
                10.1590/S1807-59322010000400006
                2862667
                20454495
                c16d1a1a-b156-4fd7-82e2-1f6edc5c9432
                Copyright © 2010 Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 30 November 2009
                : 19 January 2010
                : 19 January 2010
                Categories
                Clinical Sciences

                Medicine
                free radical,atherosclerosis,cholesterol,predictor,limb ischemia
                Medicine
                free radical, atherosclerosis, cholesterol, predictor, limb ischemia

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