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      Geographical modelling of language decline

      research-article
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      Royal Society Open Science
      The Royal Society
      complexity, simulation, language

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          Abstract

          Competition between languages affects the lives of people all over the globe, and a huge number of languages are at risk of extinction. In this work, statistical physics is applied to modelling the decline of one language in competition with another. A model from the literature is used and adapted to model the interactions among speakers in a population distribution over time, and is applied to historical data for Cornish and Welsh. Visual, geographical models show the simulated decline of the real languages studied, and a number of qualitative and quantitative features from the historical data are captured by the model. The applicability of the model to further real situations is discussed, as well as adaptations that would be needed to better take account of migration and population dynamics.

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          Most cited references37

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          Studies of independence and conformity: I. A minority of one against a unanimous majority.

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            Linguistics: modelling the dynamics of language death.

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              Is Open Access

              Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve

              We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Journal
                R Soc Open Sci
                R Soc Open Sci
                RSOS
                royopensci
                Royal Society Open Science
                The Royal Society
                2054-5703
                May 24, 2023
                May 2023
                May 24, 2023
                : 10
                : 5
                : 221045
                Affiliations
                Department of Physics, Durham University, , Durham DH1 3LE, UK
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1770-9721
                Article
                rsos221045
                10.1098/rsos.221045
                10206464
                c16ea057-767a-490c-a412-5f01e7e6a119
                © 2023 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : August 19, 2022
                : May 2, 2023
                Categories
                1009
                1003
                194
                48
                Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence
                Research Articles

                complexity,simulation,language
                complexity, simulation, language

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