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      Genetic diversity of tilapia lake virus genome segment 1 from 2011 to 2019 and a newly validated semi-nested RT-PCR method

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Evolution and taxonomy of positive-strand RNA viruses: implications of comparative analysis of amino acid sequences.

            Despite the rapid mutational change that is typical of positive-strand RNA viruses, enzymes mediating the replication and expression of virus genomes contain arrays of conserved sequence motifs. Proteins with such motifs include RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, putative RNA helicase, chymotrypsin-like and papain-like proteases, and methyltransferases. The genes for these proteins form partially conserved modules in large subsets of viruses. A concept of the virus genome as a relatively evolutionarily stable "core" of housekeeping genes accompanied by a much more flexible "shell" consisting mostly of genes coding for virion components and various accessory proteins is discussed. Shuffling of the "shell" genes including genome reorganization and recombination between remote groups of viruses is considered to be one of the major factors of virus evolution. Multiple alignments for the conserved viral proteins were constructed and used to generate the respective phylogenetic trees. Based primarily on the tentative phylogeny for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is the only universally conserved protein of positive-strand RNA viruses, three large classes of viruses, each consisting of distinct smaller divisions, were delineated. A strong correlation was observed between this grouping and the tentative phylogenies for the other conserved proteins as well as the arrangement of genes encoding these proteins in the virus genome. A comparable correlation with the polymerase phylogeny was not found for genes encoding virion components or for genome expression strategies. It is surmised that several types of arrangement of the "shell" genes as well as basic mechanisms of expression could have evolved independently in different evolutionary lineages. The grouping revealed by phylogenetic analysis may provide the basis for revision of virus classification, and phylogenetic taxonomy of positive-strand RNA viruses is outlined. Some of the phylogenetically derived divisions of positive-strand RNA viruses also include double-stranded RNA viruses, indicating that in certain cases the type of genome nucleic acid may not be a reliable taxonomic criterion for viruses. Hypothetical evolutionary scenarios for positive-strand RNA viruses are proposed. It is hypothesized that all positive-strand RNA viruses and some related double-stranded RNA viruses could have evolved from a common ancestor virus that contained genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a chymotrypsin-related protease that also functioned as the capsid protein, and possibly an RNA helicase.
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              Changes to taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2017).

              This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in March 2017.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aquaculture
                Aquaculture
                Elsevier BV
                00448486
                September 2020
                September 2020
                : 526
                : 735423
                Article
                10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735423
                c1729128-4cb5-4f73-927e-f3a0565dab4f
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


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