B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NTproBNP have been shown to be extremely helpful in the diagnosis and management of patients with heart failure (HF). These neurohormones are predominately secreted from the left and the right cardiac ventricle in response to volume and pressure overload. BNP and NT-proBNP can be seen as quantitative markers of HF summarizing the extent of systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. Research data from clinical studies and six years of clinical experience with BNP allow us to provide clear recommendations regarding the integration of BNP/NT-proBNP into clinical medicine. With multiple additional indications in prospect, current evidence clearly supports the use of BNP and NT-proBNP in three clinical settings: patients with acute dyspnoea, prior to discharge in patients hospitalised with acute HF, and the longterm management of patients with HF.