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      Dopamine Replacement Modulates Oscillatory Coupling Between Premotor and Motor Cortical Areas in Parkinson's Disease

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          Efficient neural communication between premotor and motor cortical areas is critical for manual motor control. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to study cortical connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and age-matched healthy controls while they performed repetitive movements of the right index finger at maximal repetition rate. Multiple source beamformer analysis and dynamic causal modeling were used to assess oscillatory coupling between the lateral premotor cortex (lPM), supplementary motor area (SMA), and primary motor cortex (M1) in the contralateral hemisphere. Elderly healthy controls showed task-related modulation in connections from lPM to SMA and M1, mainly within the γ-band (>30 Hz). Nonmedicated PD patients also showed task-related γ-γ coupling from lPM to M1, but γ coupling from lPM to SMA was absent. Levodopa reinstated physiological γ-γ coupling from lPM to SMA and significantly strengthened coupling in the feedback connection from M1 to lPM expressed as β-β as well as θ-β coupling. Enhancement in cross-frequency θ-β coupling from M1 to lPM was correlated with levodopa-induced improvement in motor function. The results show that PD is associated with an altered neural communication between premotor and motor cortical areas, which can be modulated by dopamine replacement.

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          Systematic review of levodopa dose equivalency reporting in Parkinson's disease.

          Interpretation of clinical trials comparing different drug regimens for Parkinson's disease (PD) is complicated by the different dose intensities used: higher doses of levodopa and, possibly, other drugs produce better symptomatic control but more late complications. To address this problem, conversion factors have been calculated for antiparkinsonian drugs that yield a total daily levodopa equivalent dose (LED). LED estimates vary, so we undertook a systematic review of studies reporting LEDs to provide standardized formulae. Electronic database and hand searching of references identified 56 primary reports of LED estimates. Data were extracted and the mean and modal LEDs calculated. This yielded a standardized LED for each drug, providing a useful tool to express dose intensity of different antiparkinsonian drug regimens on a single scale. Using these conversion formulae to report LEDs would improve the consistency of reporting and assist the interpretation of clinical trials comparing different PD medications. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.
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            Beta-band oscillations--signalling the status quo?

            In this review, we consider the potential functional role of beta-band oscillations, which at present is not yet well understood. We discuss evidence from recent studies on top-down mechanisms involved in cognitive processing, on the motor system and on the pathophysiology of movement disorders that suggest a unifying hypothesis: beta-band activity seems related to the maintenance of the current sensorimotor or cognitive state. We hypothesize that beta oscillations and/or coupling in the beta-band are expressed more strongly if the maintenance of the status quo is intended or predicted, than if a change is expected. Moreover, we suggest that pathological enhancement of beta-band activity is likely to result in an abnormal persistence of the status quo and a deterioration of flexible behavioural and cognitive control. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The basal ganglia: focused selection and inhibition of competing motor programs.

               JONATHAN MINK (1996)
              The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these a abnormalities. However, it has not been agreed just what the basal ganglia contribute to normal movement. Recent advances in knowledge of the basal ganglia circuitry, activity of basal ganglia neurons during movement, and the effect of basal ganglia lesions have led to a new hypothesis of basal ganglia function. The hypothesis states that the basal ganglia do not generate movements. Instead, when voluntary movement is generated by cerebral cortical and cerebellar mechanisms, the basal ganglia act broadly to inhibit competing motor mechanisms that would otherwise interfere with the desired movement. Simultaneously, inhibition is removed focally from the desired motor mechanisms to allow that movement to proceed. Inability to inhibit competing motor programs results in slow movements, abnormal postures and involuntary muscle activity.

                Author and article information

                Cereb Cortex
                Cereb. Cortex
                Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)
                Oxford University Press
                November 2014
                02 June 2013
                02 June 2013
                : 24
                : 11
                : 2873-2883
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne , Cologne, Germany,
                [2 ]Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre , Hvidovre, Denmark,
                [3 ]Cognitive Neurology Section, Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Juelich , Juelich, Germany,
                [4 ]McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University , Montreal, QC, Canada,
                [5 ]Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports,
                [6 ]Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen, Denmark and
                [7 ]Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research , Cologne, Germany
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to Damian Marc Herz, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Kettegaard Allé 30, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. Email: damianh@
                © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact



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