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      Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil


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          Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms.


          Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%). PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1) or 2b (n = 10).


          The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7%) and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

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          Genomic analysis of PCV2 isolates from Danish archives and a current PMWS case-control study supports a shift in genotypes with time.

          Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. PCV2, however, is found in both PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds. The objective of this study was to clarify if PCV2 genome nucleotide sequences isolated from pigs from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds cluster phylogenetically in two separate groups. All isolates (45) belonged to PCV2 group 1 and shared a nucleotide sequence identity of 99.4-100% indicating a very homogeneous PCV2 population in Denmark. Phylogenetic analysis of the PCV2 isolates revealed no distinctive clustering of case- and control-herds suggesting that there is no link between PCV2 sequences and herd disease status. The appearance of only PCV2 group 1 isolates in this study (isolates from 2003/2004) led us to determine if PCV2 nucleotide sequences had changed in Denmark over time. Interestingly, all PCV2 isolates from before the first outbreak of PMWS (2001) belonged either to a new PCV2 group identified for the first time in this study and named group 3 (isolates from 1980, 1987 and 1990) or PCV2 group 2 (isolates from 1993 and 1996). The shift from PCV2 group 2 to 1 was confirmed on a more global scale by placing all full genome PCV2 sequences submitted to GenBank from 1997 to 2006 in either of the groups by phylogenetic analysis. The analysis showed that the shift happened in 2003 or even earlier. This may indicate that PCV2 group 1 is a more adapted form of PCV2 and possibly could be more pathogenic.
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            PCV-2 genotype definition and nomenclature.

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              PCV-2 genotype definition and nomenclature


                Author and article information

                Acta Vet Scand
                Acta Vet. Scand
                Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
                BioMed Central
                3 May 2012
                : 54
                : 1
                : 29
                [1 ]Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil
                [2 ]Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brazil
                Copyright ©2012 Castro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 7 October 2011
                : 3 May 2012
                Brief Communication

                Veterinary medicine
                porcine circovirus,porcine parvovirus,pig,brucella,abortion
                Veterinary medicine
                porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, pig, brucella, abortion


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