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      The complete mitochondrial genomes of hycleus cichorii and hycleus phaleratus (Coleoptera: Meloidae)

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          Abstract

          The Hycleus cichorii and Hycleus phaleratus are two species of medicinal meloids widely distributed in southwest of China. We sequenced an annotated the complete mitochondrial genomes of H. cichorii and H. phaleratus, and the mitogenomes are 15,847 and 16,004 bp in length, respectively. Every mitochondrial genome encodes 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 tRNAs, and a control region with the identical arrangement to other beetles. The preliminary phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial genomes of nine meloid species further confirmed the status of these two species.

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          High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

          The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models.
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            The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

            The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia.
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              Mitochondrial genomes of blister beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae) and two large intergenic spacers in Hycleus genera

              Background Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) exhibit high diversity in some lineages. The gene rearrangement and large intergenic spacer (IGS) have been reported in several Coleopteran species, although very little is known about mitogenomes of Meloidae. Results We determined complete or nearly complete mitogenomes of seven meloid species. The circular genomes encode 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and contain a control region, with gene arrangement identical to the ancestral type for insects. The evolutionary rates of all PCGs indicate that their evolution is based on purifying selection. The comparison of tRNA secondary structures indicates diverse substitution patterns in Meloidae. Remarkably, all mitogenomes of the three studied Hycleus species contain two large intergenic spacers (IGSs). IGS1 is located between trnW and trnC, including a 9 bp consensus motif. IGS2 is located between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1, containing discontinuous repeats of a pentanucleotide motif and two 18-bp repeat units in both ends. To date, IGS2 is found only in genera Hycleus across all published Coleopteran mitogenomes. The duplication/random loss model and slipped-strand mispairing are proposed as evolutionary mechanisms for the two IGSs (IGS1, IGS2). The phylogenetic analyses using MrBayes, RAxML, and PhyloBayes methods based on nucleotide and amino acid datasets of 13 PCGs from all published mitogenomes of Tenebrionoids, consistently recover the monophylies of Meloidae and Tenebrionidae. Within Meloidae, the genus Lytta clusters with Epicauta rather than with Mylabris. Although data collected thus far could not resolve the phylogenetic relationships within Meloidae, this study will assist in future mapping of the Meloidae phylogeny. Conclusions This study presents mitogenomes of seven meloid beetles. New mitogenomes retain the genomic architecture of the Coleopteran ancestor, but contain two IGSs in the three studied Hycleus species. Comparative analyses of two IGSs suggest that their evolutionary mechanisms are duplication/random loss model and slipped-strand mispairing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-017-4102-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mitochondrial DNA B Resour
                Mitochondrial DNA B Resour
                Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources
                Taylor & Francis
                2380-2359
                7 February 2018
                2018
                : 3
                : 1
                : 159-160
                Affiliations
                [a ]Institute of Entomology, Special Key Laboratory for Development and Utilization of Insect Resources, Guizhou University , Guiyang, Guizhou, P.R. China;
                [b ]Department of Parasitology, Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Basic Medical College, Guizhou Medical University , Guiyang, Guizhou, P.R. China
                Author notes
                CONTACT Xiangsheng Chen xschen@ 123456gzu.edu.cn Institute of Entomology, Special Key Laboratory for Development and Utilization of Insect Resources, Guizhou University , Guiyang, Guizhou, P.R. China
                Article
                1431066
                10.1080/23802359.2018.1431066
                7800676
                c1a16b5e-0467-4b14-a782-dd77885ea8a9
                © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 2, Words: 868
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                Research Article
                Mitogenome Announcement

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