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β2-Adrenergic receptor overexpression in the developing mouse heart: evidence for targeted modulation of ion channels

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The Journal of Physiology

Wiley

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      Most cited references 35

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      Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches

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        Coassembly of K(V)LQT1 and minK (IsK) proteins to form cardiac I(Ks) potassium channel.

        The slowly activating delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Ks), modulates the repolarization of cardiac action potentials. The molecular structure of the I(Ks) channel is not known, but physiological data indicate that one component of the I(Ks), channel is minK, a 130-amino-acid protein with a single putative transmembrane domain. The size and structure of this protein is such that it is unlikely that minK alone forms functional channels. We have previously used positional cloning techniques to define a new putative K+-channel gene, KVLQT1. Mutations in this gene cause long-QT syndrome, an inherited disorder that increases the risk of sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. Here we show that KVLQT1 encodes a K+ channel with biophysical properties unlike other known cardiac currents. We considered that K(V)LQT1 might coassemble with another subunit to form functional channels in cardiac myocytes. Coexpression of K(V)LQT1 with minK induced a current that was almost identical to cardiac I(Ks). Therefore, K(V)LQT1 is the subunit that coassembles with minK to form I(Ks) channels and I(Ks) dysfunction is a cause of cardiac arrhythmia.
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          Two components of cardiac delayed rectifier K+ current. Differential sensitivity to block by class III antiarrhythmic agents

           M Sanguinetti (1990)
          An envelope of tails test was used to show that the delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) of guinea pig ventricular myocytes results from the activation of two outward K+ currents. One current was specifically blocked by the benzenesulfonamide antiarrhythmic agent, E-4031 (IC50 = 397 nM). The drug-sensitive current, "IKr" exhibits prominent rectification and activates very rapidly relative to the slowly activating drug-insensitive current, "IKs." IKs was characterized by a delayed onset of activation that occurs over a voltage range typical of the classically described cardiac IK. Fully activated IKs, measured as tail current after 7.5-s test pulses, was 11.4 times larger than the fully activated IKr. IKr was also blocked by d-sotalol (100 microM), a less potent benzenesulfonamide Class III antiarrhythmic agent. The activation curve of IKr had a steep slope (+7.5 mV) and a negative half- point (-21.5 mV) relative to the activation curve of IKs (slope = +12.7 mV, half-point = +15.7 mV). The reversal potential (Erev) of IKr (-93 mV) was similar to EK (-94 mV for [K+]o = 4 mM), whereas Erev of IKs was -77 mV. The time constants for activation and deactivation of IKr made up a bell-shaped function of membrane potential, peaking between - 30 and -40 mV (170 ms). The slope conductance of the linear portion of the fully activated IKr-V relation was 22.5 S/F. Inward rectification of this relation occurred at potentials greater than -50 mV, resulting in a voltage-dependent decrease in peak IKr at test potentials greater than 0 mV. Peak IKr at 0 mV averaged 0.8 pA/pF (n = 21). Although the magnitude of IKr was small relative to fully activated IKs, the two currents were of similar magnitude when measured during a relatively short pulse protocol (225 ms) at membrane potentials (-20 to +20 mV) typical of the plateau phase of cardiac action potentials.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            The Journal of Physiology
            Wiley
            00223751
            April 1999
            April 1999
            September 08 2004
            : 516
            : 1
            : 19-30
            10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.019aa.x
            © 2004

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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