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      Cis-oriented solvent-front EGFR G796S mutation in tissue and ctDNA in a patient progressing on osimertinib: a case report and review of the literature

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          Abstract

          Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is a universal event and limits clinical efficacy. The third-generation EGFR inhibitor osimertinib is active in EGFR-mutant/T790M positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Mechanisms of acquired resistance are emerging, and here we describe a cis-oriented solvent-front EGFR G796S mutation as the resistance mechanism observed in a progression biopsy and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from a patient with initial response followed by progression on osimertinib. This is one of the earliest reports of a sole solvent-front tertiary EGFR mutation as a resistance mechanism to osimertinib. Our case suggests a monoclonal resistance mechanism. We review the importance of the solvent-front residues across TKIs and describe known osimertinib resistance mechanisms. We observe that nearly all clinical osimertinib-resistant tertiary EGFR mutations are oriented in cis with EGFR T790M. This case highlights the importance of mutations affecting EGFR kinase domains and supports the feasibility of broad panel ctDNA assays for detection of novel acquired resistance and tumor heterogeneity in routine clinical care.

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          Resistance mechanisms for the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib.

          Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and is effective in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Resistance to irreversible kinase inhibitors and resistance associated with BTK inhibition have not been characterized. Although only a small proportion of patients have had a relapse during ibrutinib therapy, an understanding of resistance mechanisms is important. We evaluated patients with relapsed disease to identify mutations that may mediate ibrutinib resistance. We performed whole-exome sequencing at baseline and the time of relapse on samples from six patients with acquired resistance to ibrutinib therapy. We then performed functional analysis of identified mutations. In addition, we performed Ion Torrent sequencing for identified resistance mutations on samples from nine patients with prolonged lymphocytosis. We identified a cysteine-to-serine mutation in BTK at the binding site of ibrutinib in five patients and identified three distinct mutations in PLCγ2 in two patients. Functional analysis showed that the C481S mutation of BTK results in a protein that is only reversibly inhibited by ibrutinib. The R665W and L845F mutations in PLCγ2 are both potentially gain-of-function mutations that lead to autonomous B-cell-receptor activity. These mutations were not found in any of the patients with prolonged lymphocytosis who were taking ibrutinib. Resistance to the irreversible BTK inhibitor ibrutinib often involves mutation of a cysteine residue where ibrutinib binding occurs. This finding, combined with two additional mutations in PLCγ2 that are immediately downstream of BTK, underscores the importance of the B-cell-receptor pathway in the mechanism of action of ibrutinib in CLL. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
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            Osimertinib for pretreated EGFR Thr790Met-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (AURA2): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study.

            Osimertinib (AZD9291) is an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor selective for EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitising mutations, and the EGFR Thr790Met resistance mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had progressed after previous therapy with an approved EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor.
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              Third-generation inhibitors targeting EGFR T790M mutation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

              The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR T790M mutation leads to resistance to most clinically available EGFR TKIs. Third-generation EGFR TKIs against the T790M mutation have been in active clinical development. These agents include osimertinib, rociletinib, HM61713, ASP8273, EGF816, and PF-06747775. Osimertinib and rociletinib have shown clinical efficacy in phase I/II trials in patients who had acquired resistance to first- or second-generation TKIs. Osimertinib (AZD9291, TAGRISSO) was recently approved by FDA for metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC. HM61713, ASP8237, EGF816, and PF-06747775 are still in early clinical development. This article reviews the emerging data regarding third-generation agents against EGFR T790M mutation in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Lung Cancer (Auckl)
                Lung Cancer (Auckl)
                Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
                Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1179-2728
                2017
                06 December 2017
                : 8
                : 241-247
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [3 ]Department of Radiology, The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [4 ]Clinical Development, Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA
                [5 ]Department of Medicine-Hematology/Oncology, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Samuel J Klempner, The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, 11818 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA, Tel +1 310 231 2167, Fax +1 310 231 2172, Email sklempner@ 123456theangelesclinic.org
                Article
                lctt-8-241
                10.2147/LCTT.S147129
                5723122
                © 2017 Klempner et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                osimertinib, t790m, ctdna, resistance, egfr g796, lung cancer

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