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      A hypothesis linking sodium and lithium reabsorption in the distal nephron

      ,

      Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Most cited references 20

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          Regulation of Na channels of the rat cortical collecting tubule by aldosterone

           G Palmer,  J Pacha,  G Frindt (1993)
          The activity of apical membrane Na channels in the rat cortical collecting tubule was studied during manipulation of the animals' mineralocorticoid status in vivo using a low-Na diet or the diuretic furosemide. Tubules were isolated and split open to expose the luminal membrane surface. Induction of Na channel activity was studied in cell- attached patches of the split tubules. No activity was observed with control animals on a normal diet. Channel activity could be induced by putting the animals on the low-Na diet for at least 48 h. The mean number of open channels per patch (NPo) was maximal after 1 wk on low Na. Channels were also induced within 3 h after injection of furosemide (20 mg/kg body wt per d). NPo was maximal 48 h after the first injection. In both cases, increases in NPo were primarily due to increases in the number of channels per patch (N) at a constant open probability (Po). With salt depletion or furosemide injection NPo is a saturable function of aldosterone concentration with half-maximal activity at approximately 8 nM. When animals were salt repleted after 1- 2 wk of salt depletion, both plasma aldosterone and NPo fell markedly within 6 h. NPo continued to decrease over the next 14 h, while plasma aldosterone rebounded partially. Channel activity may be dissociated from aldosterone concentrations under conditions of salt repletion.
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            Sodium and potassium handling by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron: the pivotal role of the distal and connecting tubule.

            Sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in the distal convoluted tubule and in the connecting tubule can maintain the homeostasis of the body, especially when dietary sodium intake is high and potassium intake is low. Under these conditions, a large proportion of the aldosterone-regulated sodium and potassium transport would occur in these nephron segments before the tubular fluid reaches the collecting duct. The differences between these two segments and the collecting duct would be more quantitative than qualitative. The collecting duct would come into play when the upstream segments are overloaded by a primary genetic defect that affects sodium and/or potassium transport or by a diet that is exceedingly poor in sodium and rich in potassium. It is likely that the homeostatic role of the distal convoluted and connecting tubules, which are technically difficult to study, has been underestimated, whereas the role of the more easily accessible collecting duct may have been overemphasized.
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              Tubular action of diuretics: distal effects on electrolyte transport and acidification.

              We used clearance and free-flow micropuncture techniques to evaluate the influence of several diuretic agents, given both individually and in various combinations, on transport of sodium, potassium, and fluid, and on acidification and ammonium transport, within the distal tubule of the rat kidney. The loop diuretics, furosemide and piretanide, sharply increased fractional delivery of fluid, sodium, and potassium into the distal tubule, and, as a result, sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion were enhanced in this nephron segment. These two drugs also stimulated urinary acidification and increased urinary phosphate, titratable acid, and ammonium excretion. These effects took place both within the loop of Henle and along the distal tubule. Amiloride and triamterene alone inhibited distal tubular sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and, when given with one of the loop diuretics, suppressed both the kaliuresis and the increased acid and ammonium excretion induced by the latter agents. Hydrochlorothiazide and tizolemide inhibited sodium reabsorption within the distal tubule, and were associated with a stimulation of potassium secretion within this segment. Addition of one of these two latter distally acting agents to either of the loop diuretics led to a further augmentation of sodium excretion, but to a reduction of potassium excretion, compared to the responses seen after the loop diuretics alone.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1460-2385
                0931-0509
                April 01 2006
                April 01 2006
                : 21
                : 4
                : 869-880
                Article
                10.1093/ndt/gfk029
                © 2006

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