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      Pattern of Maxillofacial Injuries and Determinants of Outcome in a Large Series of Patients admitted to a Level-I Trauma Center


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          To investigate the severity of injuries and the pattern of jaw and facial injuries in trauma patients and also to determine the predictors of the outcome in these patients.  


          This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2697 patients with facial trauma who referred to trauma center in Shahid Rajaee (Emtiaz) Hospital, Shiraz, Iran during 2010-2015. Injury severity score was determined through the conversion of injury codes of the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10). Binary logistic regression by backward method was used to determine the partial effects of independent risk factors on death odds ratio.


          The mean age of patients with maxillofacial injuries was 31.96 ± 15.80 years. The mean injury severity score (ISS) was 4.3 ± 4.4 and about 80% of the patients had an ISS between 1 and 8. Mandible fracture and ear injuries, respectively, were the most and the least prevalent types of maxillofacial injury. The odds ratio of death by motorcycle accident was 1.7 times higher than falling down in maxillofacial patients.


          Age, gender (male), ISS, and mechanism of injury were the significant predictors of mortality in the facial trauma patients. Mandible fracture and ear injury, respectively, were the most and the least prevalent types of maxillofacial injury. Our findings demonstrate the need for referral to the maxillofacial surgeon and maxillofacial surgery should be in connected with neurosurgical centers.

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          Most cited references 20

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          GBD 2010: design, definitions, and metrics.

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            Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

            Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA.
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              Building national estimates of the burden of road traffic injuries in developing countries from all available data sources: Iran.

              To use a range of existing information sources to develop a national snapshot of the burden of road traffic injuries in one developing country-Iran. The distribution of deaths was estimated by using data from the national death registration system, hospital admissions and outpatient visits from a time-limited hospital registry in 12 of 30 provinces, and injuries that received no institutional care using the 2000 demographic and health survey. Results were extrapolated to national annual incidence of health burden differentiated by age, sex, external cause, nature of injuries and institutional care. In 2005, 30,721 Iranians died annually in road traffic crashes and over one million were injured. The death rate (44 per 100,000) is the highest of any country in the world for which reliable estimates are available. Road traffic injuries are the third leading cause of death in Iran. While young adults are at high risk in non-fatal crashes, the elderly have the highest total death rates, largely due to pedestrian crashes. While car occupants lead the death count, motorized two-wheeler riders dominate hospital admissions, outpatient visits and health burden. Reliable estimates of the burden of road traffic injuries are an essential input for rational priority setting. Most low income countries are unlikely to have national injury surveillance systems for several decades. Thus national estimates of the burden of injuries should be built by collating information from all existing information sources by appropriately correcting for source specific shortcomings.

                Author and article information

                Bull Emerg Trauma
                Bull Emerg Trauma
                Bulletin of Emergency & Trauma
                Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran )
                April 2019
                : 7
                : 2
                : 176-182
                [1 ] Trauma Research Center, Rajaee (Emtiaz) Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Forough Pazhuheian, Address: Trauma Research Center, Rajaee (Emtiaz) Trauma Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.e-mail: fpazhuheian@yahoo.com
                © 2019 Trauma Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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