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      Serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), an adipokine thought to affect systemic insulin sensitivity, were compared between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS controls to evaluate the association of RBP4 with clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters of PCOS.

          Subjects and methods

          Serum RBP4 levels were analysed in 278 women with PCOS (age range 18–57 years) and 191 non-PCOS controls (age 20–53 years) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

          Results

          Serum levels of RBP4 were increased in women with PCOS compared with control women in the whole population (45.1 ± 24.0 ( s.d.) vs 33.5 ± 18.3 mg/L, P < 0.001). Age-stratified analysis showed that serum RBP4 levels were increased in women with PCOS aged ≤30 years compared with controls (47.7 ± 23.5 vs 27.1 ± 10.4 mg/L, P < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were seen in the other age groups. No significant correlations of RBP4 were seen with either steroids or indices of insulin resistance.

          Conclusions

          Although serum RBP4 levels were increased in younger women with PCOS compared with age-matched non-PCOS controls, RBP4 does not seem to be a good marker of insulin resistance or other metabolic derangements in women with PCOS.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance in lean, obese, and diabetic subjects.

          Insulin resistance has a causal role in type 2 diabetes. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a protein secreted by adipocytes, are increased in insulin-resistant states. Experiments in mice suggest that elevated RBP4 levels cause insulin resistance. We sought to determine whether serum RBP4 levels correlate with insulin resistance and change after an intervention that improves insulin sensitivity. We also determined whether elevated serum RBP4 levels are associated with reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in adipocytes, an early pathological feature of insulin resistance. We measured serum RBP4, insulin resistance, and components of the metabolic syndrome in three groups of subjects. Measurements were repeated after exercise training in one group. GLUT4 protein was measured in isolated adipocytes. Serum RBP4 levels correlated with the magnitude of insulin resistance in subjects with obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes and in nonobese, nondiabetic subjects with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes. Elevated serum RBP4 was associated with components of the metabolic syndrome, including increased body-mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Exercise training was associated with a reduction in serum RBP4 levels only in subjects in whom insulin resistance improved. Adipocyte GLUT4 protein and serum RBP4 levels were inversely correlated. RBP4 is an adipocyte-secreted molecule that is elevated in the serum before the development of frank diabetes and appears to identify insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with varied clinical presentations. These findings provide a rationale for antidiabetic therapies aimed at lowering serum RBP4 levels. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Plasma retinol-binding protein-4 concentrations are elevated in human subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

            The dysregulation of adipokines is closely associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), a new adipokine, was recently reported to provide a link between obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we examined the relation between plasma RBP4 concentrations and various metabolic parameters in humans. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure human RBP4 plasma concentrations, which were then compared with various parameters related to insulin resistance in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 57), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 48), and type 2 diabetes (n = 49). Plasma RBP4 concentrations were higher in the IGT and type 2 diabetic groups than in the NGT group (median 18.9 [range 11.2-45.8], 20.9 [9.9-48.5], and 18.1 microg/ml [9.3-30.5], respectively). However, no difference was found between plasma RBP4 concentrations in the IGT and type 2 diabetic groups. Plasma RBP4 concentrations were found to be associated with sex, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. Of these, sex and fasting plasma glucose levels were found to be independent determinants of plasma RBP4 concentration. Plasma RBP4 concentrations were found to be elevated in subjects with IGT or type 2 diabetes and to be related to various clinical parameters known to be associated with insulin resistance.
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              RBP4: a controversial adipokine.

              Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ secreting biologically active factors called adipokines that act on both local and distant tissues. Adipokines have an important role in the development of obesity-related comorbidities not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine suggested to link obesity with its comorbidities, especially insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and certain components of the metabolic syndrome. However, data, especially resulting from the clinical studies, are conflicting. In this review, we summarize up-to-date knowledge on RBP4's role in obesity, development of insulin resistance, and T2D. Special attention is given to studies on children and adolescents. We also discuss the role of possible confounding factors that should be taken into account when critically evaluating published studies or planning new studies on this exciting adipokine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                EC
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                2049-3614
                June 2019
                03 May 2019
                : 8
                : 6
                : 709-717
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , PEDEGO Research Unit, Medical Research Centre, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
                [2 ]Department of Women’s and Children’s Health , Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                [3 ]Department of Physiology and Pharmacology , Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                [4 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to J S Tapanainen: juha.tapanainen@ 123456helsinki.fi
                Article
                EC-19-0116
                10.1530/EC-19-0116
                6547302
                31051472
                © 2019 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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