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      Resolvins and aliamides: lipid autacoids in ophthalmology – what promise do they hold?

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          Abstract

          Resolvins are a novel class of lipid-derived endogenous molecules (autacoids) with potent immunomodulating properties, which regulate the resolution phase of an active immune response. These modulating factors are locally produced, influencing the function of cells and/or tissues, which are produced on demand and subsequently metabolized in the same cells and/or tissues. This review is focused on certain lipid autacoids with putative relevance for ophthalmology in general and for dry eye more specifically. We also briefly investigate the concept of aliamides and the role of palmitoylethanolamide in ophthalmology, and analyze in more detail the putative role and the preclinical and clinical development of resolvins as emerging treatments for dry eye and related disorders, with a focus on one of the lead resolvin derivatives – RX-10045.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Novel Functional Sets of Lipid-Derived Mediators with Antiinflammatory Actions Generated from Omega-3 Fatty Acids via Cyclooxygenase 2–Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Transcellular Processing

          Aspirin therapy inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis without directly acting on lipoxygenases, yet via acetylation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) it leads to bioactive lipoxins (LXs) epimeric at carbon 15 (15-epi-LX, also termed aspirin-triggered LX [ATL]). Here, we report that inflammatory exudates from mice treated with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and aspirin (ASA) generate a novel array of bioactive lipid signals. Human endothelial cells with upregulated COX-2 treated with ASA converted C20:5 ω-3 to 18R-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE) and 15R-HEPE. Each was used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to generate separate classes of novel trihydroxy-containing mediators, including 5-series 15R-LX5 and 5,12,18R-triHEPE. These new compounds proved to be potent inhibitors of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte transendothelial migration and infiltration in vivo (ATL analogue > 5,12,18R-triHEPE > 18R-HEPE). Acetaminophen and indomethacin also permitted 18R-HEPE and 15R-HEPE generation with recombinant COX-2 as well as ω-5 and ω-9 oxygenations of other fatty acids that act on hematologic cells. These findings establish new transcellular routes for producing arrays of bioactive lipid mediators via COX-2–nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug–dependent oxygenations and cell–cell interactions that impact microinflammation. The generation of these and related compounds provides a novel mechanism(s) for the therapeutic benefits of ω-3 dietary supplementation, which may be important in inflammation, neoplasia, and vascular diseases.
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            Increased dietary intake of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesis.

            Many sight-threatening diseases have two critical phases, vessel loss followed by hypoxia-driven destructive neovascularization. These diseases include retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy, leading causes of blindness in childhood and middle age affecting over 4 million people in the United States. We studied the influence of omega-3- and omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on vascular loss, vascular regrowth after injury, and hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. We show that increasing omega-3-PUFA tissue levels by dietary or genetic means decreased the avascular area of the retina by increasing vessel regrowth after injury, thereby reducing the hypoxic stimulus for neovascularization. The bioactive omega-3-PUFA-derived mediators neuroprotectinD1, resolvinD1 and resolvinE1 also potently protected against neovascularization. The protective effect of omega-3-PUFAs and their bioactive metabolites was mediated, in part, through suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. This inflammatory cytokine was found in a subset of microglia that was closely associated with retinal vessels. These findings indicate that increasing the sources of omega-3-PUFA or their bioactive products reduces pathological angiogenesis. Western diets are often deficient in omega-3-PUFA, and premature infants lack the important transfer from the mother to the infant of omega-3-PUFA that normally occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy. Supplementing omega-3-PUFA intake may be of benefit in preventing retinopathy.
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              Experimental dry eye stimulates production of inflammatory cytokines and MMP-9 and activates MAPK signaling pathways on the ocular surface.

              To evaluate whether experimentally induced dry eye in mice activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK), and p38 and stimulates ocular surface inflammation. 129SvEv/CD-1 mixed mice aged 6 to 8 weeks were treated with systemic scopolamine and exposure to an air draft for different lengths of time, from 4 hours to 10 days. Untreated mice were used as the control. The concentrations of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in tear fluid washings and in corneal and conjunctival epithelia were measured by ELISA. MMP-9 in tear washings was evaluated by zymography, and gelatinase activity in the cornea and conjunctiva was determined by in situ zymography. Corneal and conjunctival epithelia were lysed in RIPA buffer for Western blot with MAPK antibodies, or they were lysed in 4 M guanidium thiocyanate solution for extraction of total RNA, which was used to determine gene expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and gene array. Compared with those in age-matched control subjects, the concentrations of IL-1beta and MMP-9 in tear fluid washings and the concentrations of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha and gelatinolytic activity in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia were significantly increased in mice receiving treatments to induce dry eye after 5 or 10 days. The expression of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 mRNA by the corneal and conjunctival epithelia was also stimulated in mice treated for 5 or 10 days. The levels of phosphorylated JNK1/2, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPKs in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia were markedly increased as early as 4 hours after treatment, and they remained elevated up to 5 days. Experimental dry eye stimulates expression and production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 and activates MAPK signaling pathways on the ocular surface. MAPKs are known to stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines and MMPs, and they could play an important role in the induction of these factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                27 September 2016
                : 10
                : 3133-3141
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany
                [2 ]Eye Clinic, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Flavia Chiosi, Eye Clinic, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Via Francesco De Sanctis 1, 86100 Campobasso, Italy, Tel +39 339 533 3929, Fax +39 081 566 6782, Email flaviachiosi@ 123456yahoo.it
                Article
                dddt-10-3133
                10.2147/DDDT.S112389
                5045908
                27729772
                © 2016 Hesselink et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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