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      Modulation of SIRT6 activity acts as an emerging therapeutic implication for pathological disorders in the skeletal system

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          Abstract

          The skeletal system is a dynamically balanced system, which undergoes continuous bone resorption and formation to maintain bone matrix homeostasis. As an important ADP-ribosylase and NAD +-dependent deacylase, SIRT6 (SIR2-like protein 6) is widely expressed on various kinds of bone cells, such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts. The aberration of SIRT6 impairs gene expression (e.g., NF-κB and Wnt target genes) and cellular functions (e.g., DNA repair, glucose and lipid metabolism, telomeric maintenance), which disturbs the dynamic balance and ultimately leads to several bone-related diseases. In this review, we summarize the critical roles of SIRT6 in the onset and progression of bone-related diseases including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and intervertebral disc degeneration, as well as the relevant signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss the advances in the development of SIRT6 activators and elucidate their pharmacological profiles, which may provide novel treatment strategies for these skeletal diseases.

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          Most cited references167

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          Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation.

          In contrast to normal differentiated cells, which rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to generate the energy needed for cellular processes, most cancer cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed "the Warburg effect." Aerobic glycolysis is an inefficient way to generate adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), however, and the advantage it confers to cancer cells has been unclear. Here we propose that the metabolism of cancer cells, and indeed all proliferating cells, is adapted to facilitate the uptake and incorporation of nutrients into the biomass (e.g., nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids) needed to produce a new cell. Supporting this idea are recent studies showing that (i) several signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation also regulate metabolic pathways that incorporate nutrients into biomass; and that (ii) certain cancer-associated mutations enable cancer cells to acquire and metabolize nutrients in a manner conducive to proliferation rather than efficient ATP production. A better understanding of the mechanistic links between cellular metabolism and growth control may ultimately lead to better treatments for human cancer.
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            Rheumatoid arthritis.

            Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage as well as disability. Early diagnosis is key to optimal therapeutic success, particularly in patients with well-characterised risk factors for poor outcomes such as high disease activity, presence of autoantibodies, and early joint damage. Treatment algorithms involve measuring disease activity with composite indices, applying a treatment-to-target strategy, and use of conventional, biological, and newz non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. After the treatment target of stringent remission (or at least low disease activity) is maintained, dose reduction should be attempted. Although the prospects for most patients are now favourable, many still do not respond to current therapies. Accordingly, new therapies are urgently required. In this Seminar, we describe current insights into genetics and aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, assessment, therapeutic agents, and treatment strategies together with unmet needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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              Origin and physiological roles of inflammation.

              Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Although the pathological aspects of many types of inflammation are well appreciated, their physiological functions are mostly unknown. The classic instigators of inflammation - infection and tissue injury - are at one end of a large range of adverse conditions that induce inflammation, and they trigger the recruitment of leukocytes and plasma proteins to the affected tissue site. Tissue stress or malfunction similarly induces an adaptive response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation. This response relies mainly on tissue-resident macrophages and is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response. Para-inflammation is probably responsible for the chronic inflammatory conditions that are associated with modern human diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                12 February 2022
                May 2023
                12 February 2022
                : 10
                : 3
                : 864-876
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
                [b ]Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. chenyueqi1012@ 123456sina.com
                Article
                S2352-3042(22)00018-6
                10.1016/j.gendis.2021.12.024
                10308074
                c1cac174-0635-4e8e-89d4-bc949545f195
                © 2022 The Authors. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 31 August 2021
                : 20 December 2021
                : 29 December 2021
                Categories
                Review Article

                intervertebral disc degeneration (idd),osteoarthritis (oa),osteoporosis (op),rheumatoid arthritis (ra),sirt6 (sir2-like protein 6),sirt6 activator

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