26
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of VASP promotes invasiveness and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Rational: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have a poor prognosis mostly due to intrahepatic as well as distal metastasis. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a regulator of actin cytoskeleton and cell migration, is overexpressed in HCC and correlated with its malignant features and poor prognosis. Very little is known about its function in HCC.

          Methods: qRT-PCR, Western blot and IHC were used to detect the VASP expression in tissues and cells. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to measure the migration and invasion of HCC cells. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence were used for detection of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression in HCC cells. A lung metastasis mouse model was used to evaluate metastasis of HCC in vivo. The putative targets of miR-204 were disclosed by public databases and a dual-luciferase reporter assay. IP was used to show the interaction between VASP and CRKL. ChIP was used to analyze the binding of HIF-1α to VASP promoter region.

          Results: Our data involving both gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that VASP activated AKT and ERK signaling and promoted HCC migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo by altering the EMT phenotype and expression of MMPs. We investigated the positive correlation between VASP and an adapter protein, CRKL. VASP dynamically co-localized at the SH3N domain of CRKL and mediated its function. Mechanistically, VASP overexpression at the transcriptional level was mediated by HIF-1α through direct binding to two hypoxia response elements (HRE) in the VASP promoter region. Furthermore, we identified hypoxia-induced down-regulation of miR-204, which functioned as the regulator of VASP overexpression at the post-transcriptional level. Also, hypoxia-activated p-Smad3 dependent TGF-β signaling indirectly promoted VASP expression.

          Conclusion: A variety of hypoxia-induced molecular mechanisms contributed to the upregulation of VASP at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. These mechanisms involved CRKL, HIF-1α, miR-204, and TGF-β activating the AKT and ERK signaling to promote EMT and expression of MMPs. Taken together, our results defined VASP as an oncogene of HCC pathogenesis and metastasis with the potential to serve as a prognostic biomarker.

          Related collections

          Most cited references26

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Hypoxia signalling in cancer and approaches to enforce tumour regression.

          Tumour cells emerge as a result of genetic alteration of signal circuitries promoting cell growth and survival, whereas their expansion relies on nutrient supply. Oxygen limitation is central in controlling neovascularization, glucose metabolism, survival and tumour spread. This pleiotropic action is orchestrated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which is a master transcriptional factor in nutrient stress signalling. Understanding the role of HIF in intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation, metabolism, cell invasion, autophagy and cell death is crucial for developing novel anticancer therapies. There are new approaches to enforce necrotic cell death and tumour regression by targeting tumour metabolism and pH(i)-control systems.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1 promotes myeloid-derived suppressor cells accumulation through ENTPD2/CD39L1 in hepatocellular carcinoma

            Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) possess immunosuppressive activities, which allow cancers to escape immune surveillance and become non-responsive to immune checkpoints blockade. Here we report hypoxia as a cause of MDSC accumulation. Using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a cancer model, we show that hypoxia, through stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), induces ectoenzyme, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (ENTPD2/CD39L1), in cancer cells, causing its overexpression in HCC clinical specimens. Overexpression of ENTPD2 is found as a poor prognostic indicator for HCC. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that ENTPD2 converts extracellular ATP to 5′-AMP, which prevents the differentiation of MDSCs and therefore promotes the maintenance of MDSCs. We further find that ENTPD2 inhibition is able to mitigate cancer growth and enhance the efficiency and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Our data suggest that ENTPD2 may be a good prognostic marker and therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those receiving immune therapy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Antagonism between Ena/VASP proteins and actin filament capping regulates fibroblast motility.

              Cell motility requires lamellipodial protrusion, a process driven by actin polymerization. Ena/VASP proteins accumulate in protruding lamellipodia and promote the rapid actin-driven motility of the pathogen Listeria. In contrast, Ena/VASP negatively regulate cell translocation. To resolve this paradox, we analyzed the function of Ena/VASP during lamellipodial protrusion. Ena/VASP-deficient lamellipodia protruded slower but more persistently, consistent with their increased cell translocation rates. Actin networks in Ena/VASP-deficient lamellipodia contained shorter, more highly branched filaments compared to controls. Lamellipodia with excess Ena/VASP contained longer, less branched filaments. In vitro, Ena/VASP promoted actin filament elongation by interacting with barbed ends, shielding them from capping protein. We conclude that Ena/VASP regulates cell motility by controlling the geometry of actin filament networks within lamellipodia.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Theranostics
                Theranostics
                thno
                Theranostics
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1838-7640
                2018
                9 September 2018
                : 8
                : 17
                : 4649-4663
                Affiliations
                Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an 710061, China
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding authors: Dr. Kangsheng Tu and Qingguang Liu, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an 710061, China. E-mail: tks0912@ 123456foxmail.com or liuzk0319@ 123456foxmail.com ; Phone: +086-029-85323905; Fax: +086-029-85323209

                # Contributed equally

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                thnov08p4649
                10.7150/thno.26789
                6160773
                30279729
                c1d2ac1c-3404-453c-9ee3-b5091a94fe67
                © Ivyspring International Publisher

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

                History
                : 20 April 2018
                : 10 August 2018
                Categories
                Research Paper

                Molecular medicine
                vasp,hypoxia microenvironment,hepatocellular carcinoma,metastasis,crkl
                Molecular medicine
                vasp, hypoxia microenvironment, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastasis, crkl

                Comments

                Comment on this article