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      Crecimiento y maduración biológica asociados al desempeño físico del joven atleta Translated title: Biological growth and maturation associated with physical performance of the young athlete

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          Abstract

          Resumen: El análisis de la interfase entre función orgánica y física tiene una raíz histórica de larga data por parte de los especialistas en morfología humana en el campo de la salud y ciencias del deporte. En la actualidad cuando en décadas recientes se ha incrementado el descenso de la edad de los participantes en los eventos de alta competencia, se hace necesario explorar las particularidades sobre la dinámica del crecimiento y la maduración biológica que podrían condicionar el desempeño atlético. Desde esta perspectiva, la presente revisión se enfoca en la maduración biológica y su posible impacto en las diferencias inter individuales, las cuales están correlacionadas con los cambios que se experimentan en la velocidad del crecimiento. Así mismo se destaca la importancia del momento cuando se alcanza el punto máximo de velocidad lineal, la relevancia de la proporcionalidad corporal asociada a especialidades deportivas e inclusive diferencias encontradas de acuerdo a la posición de juego. Se reporta por otra parte, la importancia de los componentes cardiovasculares y fisiológicos asociados al estado de maduración que marcan su huella en el desempeño atlético. Así mismo se pone de relieve el rol potencial de la participación en deportes de alta competencia asociado a riesgos y beneficios en el crecimiento y maduración del joven atleta. Finalmente y dada la complejidad del tema, se sugiere la intervención de un equipo multidisciplinario en capacidad de analizar el impacto del crecimiento, maduración y entrenamiento en el desempeño del joven atleta.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract: Relationship between organic morphology and athletic performance has been the concern long time ago for health and sport science. However in recent decades due to the young participation in organized sport, the swift has turned to highlight the kinetics of growth and the potential role of sport participation that influence growth and maturation. The aim of this brief article, review biological maturation (sexual, skeletal and somatic), inter-individual differences, the adolescent growth spurt, peak height velocity , as well as, cardiovascular and physiological related items, allowing for variation changes in size, body composition and proportionality that could influence performance. Keys findings for the review are consistent in showing the relevance of these factors along the process of growth and maturation. Some of the observations reported the potential role of sport participation that influence growth and maturation in terms of risk and or benefic. Attention has been given to the need of understanding the impact of growth, maturation along with training in performance. Finally it is suggested that this issue has to be focuses from an auxological approach given its complexity and to avoid the decline in youth participation. On the other hand, the need for the official support for the welfare of children involved in sport participation is requested.

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          Most cited references33

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          Anthropometric reference data for international use: recommendations from a World Health Organization Expert Committee.

          The World Health Organization (WHO) convened an Expert Committee to reevaluate the use of anthropometry at different ages for assessing health, nutrition, and social wellbeing. The Committee's task included identifying reference data for anthropometric indexes when appropriate, and providing guidelines on how the data should be used. For fetal growth, the Committee recommended an existing sex-specific multiracial reference. In view of the significant technical drawbacks of the current National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference and its inadequacy for assessing the growth of breast-fed infants, the Committee recommended the development of a new reference concerning weight and length/height for infants and children, which will be a complex and costly undertaking. Proper interpretation of midupper arm circumference for preschoolers requires age-specific reference data. To evaluate adolescent height-for-age, the Committee recommended the current NCHS/WHO reference. Use of the NCHS body mass index (BMI) data, with their upper percentile elevations and skewness, is undesirable for setting health goals; however, these data were provisionally recommended for defining obesity based on a combination of elevated BMI and high subcutaneous fat. The NCHS values were provisionally recommended as reference data for subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses. Guidelines were also provided for adjusting adolescent anthropometric comparisons for maturational status. Currently, there is no need for adult reference data for BMI; interpretation should be based on pragmatic BMI cutoffs. Finally, the Committee noted that few normative anthropometric data exist for the elderly, especially for those > 80 y of age. Proper definitions of health status, function, and biologic age remain to be developed for this group.
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            The relationship between peak height velocity and physical performance in youth soccer players.

            Longitudinal changes in height, weight and physical performance were studied in 33 Flemish male youth soccer players from the Ghent Youth Soccer Project. The players' ages at the start of the study ranged from 10.4 to 13.7 years, with a mean age of 12.2 +/- 0.7 years. Longitudinal changes were studied over a 5 year period. Peak height velocity and peak weight velocity were determined using non-smoothed polynomials. The estimations of peak height velocity, peak weight velocity and age at peak height velocity were 9.7 +/- 1.5 cm x year-1, 8.4 +/- 3.0 kg x year-1 and 13.8 +/- 0.8 years, respectively. Peak weight velocity occurred, on average, at the same age as peak height velocity. Balance, speed of limb movement, trunk strength, upper-body muscular endurance, explosive strength, running speed and agility, cardiorespiratory endurance and anaerobic capacity showed peak development at peak height velocity. A plateau in the velocity curves was observed after peak height velocity for upper-body muscular endurance, explosive strength and running speed. Flexibility exhibited peak development during the tear after peak height velocity. Trainers and coaches should be aware of the individual characteristics of the adolescent growth spurt and the training load should also be individualized at this time.
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              Role of Intensive Training in the Growth and Maturation of Artistic Gymnasts

              Short stature and later maturation of youth artistic gymnasts are often attributed to the effects of intensive training from a young age. Given limitations of available data, inadequate specification of training, failure to consider other factors affecting growth and maturation, and failure to address epidemiological criteria for causality, it has not been possible thus far to establish cause–effect relationships between training and the growth and maturation of young artistic gymnasts. In response to this ongoing debate, the Scientific Commission of the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) convened a committee to review the current literature and address four questions: (1) Is there a negative effect of training on attained adult stature? (2) Is there a negative effect of training on growth of body segments? (3) Does training attenuate pubertal growth and maturation, specifically, the rate of growth and/or the timing and tempo of maturation? (4) Does training negatively influence the endocrine system, specifically hormones related to growth and pubertal maturation? The basic information for the review was derived from the active involvement of committee members in research on normal variation and clinical aspects of growth and maturation, and on the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts and other youth athletes. The committee was thus thoroughly familiar with the literature on growth and maturation in general and of gymnasts and young athletes. Relevant data were more available for females than males. Youth who persisted in the sport were a highly select sample, who tended to be shorter for chronological age but who had appropriate weight-for-height. Data for secondary sex characteristics, skeletal age and age at peak height velocity indicated later maturation, but the maturity status of gymnasts overlapped the normal range of variability observed in the general population. Gymnasts as a group demonstrated a pattern of growth and maturation similar to that observed among short-, normal-, late-maturing individuals who were not athletes. Evidence for endocrine changes in gymnasts was inadequate for inferences relative to potential training effects. Allowing for noted limitations, the following conclusions were deemed acceptable: (1) Adult height or near adult height of female and male artistic gymnasts is not compromised by intensive gymnastics training. (2) Gymnastics training does not appear to attenuate growth of upper (sitting height) or lower (legs) body segment lengths. (3) Gymnastics training does not appear to attenuate pubertal growth and maturation, neither rate of growth nor the timing and tempo of the growth spurt. (4) Available data are inadequate to address the issue of intensive gymnastics training and alterations within the endocrine system. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0058-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                avn
                Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición
                An Venez Nutr
                Fundación Bengoa (Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela )
                0798-0752
                June 2020
                : 33
                : 1
                : 24-30
                Affiliations
                [1] orgnameUniversidad Central de Venezuela orgdiv1Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales FaCES orgdiv2Unidad de Bioantropología, Actividad Física y Salud Venezuela
                Article
                S0798-07522020000100024 S0798-0752(20)03300100024
                c1d95377-d102-49f0-b295-6b47055d688f

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 20 September 2020
                : 17 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículo Original

                maduración,adolescents,physiologic factors,training,Crecimiento,proporcionalidad,entrenamiento,componentes fisiológicos,adolescentes,Growth,maturation,proportionality

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