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      Housewives’ Obesity Determinant Factors in Iran; National Survey - Stepwise Approach to Surveillance

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          Women suffer more from obesity than men in Iran do. In this study, we compared obesity risk and its contributors regarding the job categories as housewives (HWs) or employees to deeply explore the risk of obesity in housewives in Iran.


          Based on WHO stepwise approach, in 2005, 33472 women aged 15 to 65 years old (excluding all men) were examined for the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Obesity was determined by Body Mass Index>30kgm −2 in adults (>20 years) and by girl BMI percentiles according to WHO 2007 Growth Reference 5–19 years in adolescents. We modeled obesity by logistic regression and entered all the known/potential predictors, including job categories.


          The participation rate was more than 99%. The weighted prevalence of overweight and obesity in HWs were 34.5% and 24.5% respectively. Employed women were about 4% and 10% less overweight and obese than the HWs, respectively ( P< 0.01). HWs vs. employed women had the adjusted OR 1.39 (CI95%, 1.18–1.63) for obesity. Older women, with higher educational level and socioeconomic status, lower physical activities and those living in urban areas were at risk of obesity. In comparison to HWs, working as an Official Clerk (OR=0.66) associated with a decrease in odds of obesity significantly, while others did not.


          Being as HW is an independent significant factor for obesity in women. Preventive health care programs to reduce risk of obesity in women should be applied, considering their occupation for achieving more effectiveness.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Years of life lost due to obesity.

          Public health officials and organizations have disseminated health messages regarding the dangers of obesity, but these have not produced the desired effect. To estimate the expected number of years of life lost (YLL) due to overweight and obesity across the life span of an adult. Data from the (1) US Life Tables (1999); (2) Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994); and (3) First National Health and Nutrition Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHANES I and II; 1971-1992) and NHANES II Mortality Study (1976-1992) were used to derive YLL estimates for adults aged 18 to 85 years. Body mass index (BMI) integer-defined categories were used (ie, or =45). A BMI of 24 was used as the reference category. The difference between the number of years of life expected if an individual were obese vs not obese, which was designated YLL. Marked race and sex differences were observed in estimated YLL. Among whites, a J- or U-shaped association was found between overweight or obesity and YLL. The optimal BMI (associated with the least YLL or greatest longevity) is approximately 23 to 25 for whites and 23 to 30 for blacks. For any given degree of overweight, younger adults generally had greater YLL than did older adults. The maximum YLL for white men aged 20 to 30 years with a severe level of obesity (BMI >45) is 13 and is 8 for white women. For men, this could represent a 22% reduction in expected remaining life span. Among black men and black women older than 60 years, overweight and moderate obesity were generally not associated with an increased YLL and only severe obesity resulted in YLL. However, blacks at younger ages with severe levels of obesity had a maximum YLL of 20 for men and 5 for women. Obesity appears to lessen life expectancy markedly, especially among younger adults.
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            Obesity: Preveting and managing the global epidemic

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              An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran.

              To describe the emergence of the nutrition transition, and associated morbidity shifts, in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Review and analysis of secondary data relating to the socio-political and nutritional context, demographic trends, food utilisation and consumption patterns, obesity, and diet-related morbidity. The nutrition transition in Iran is occurring rapidly, secondary to the rapid change in fertility and mortality patterns and to urbanisation. The transition is occurring against the backdrop of lack of sustained economic growth. There is considerable imbalance in food consumption with low nutrient density characterising diets at all income levels, over-consumption evident among more than a third of households, and food insecurity among 20% of the population. Obesity is an emerging problem, particularly in urban areas and for women, and both diabetes and other risk factors for heart disease are becoming significant problems.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [2 ]Regional Knowledge Hub for HIV/AIDS Surveillance, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [3 ]Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [4 ]Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Center for Disease Control (CDC), Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
                [6 ]NCD Deputy of Center for Diseases Control, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Tel: +98-912-5385066, Fax: +98-21-22735176, Email: leily.sajadi@
                Iran J Public Health
                Iran. J. Public Health
                Iranian Journal of Public Health
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                30 June 2011
                : 40
                : 2
                : 87-95
                Copyright © Iranian Public Health Association & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3.0 License (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Original Article

                Public health

                overweight, women, occupation, obesity, housewife


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