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      The chemopreventive potential of lycopene against atrazine-induced cardiotoxicity: modulation of ionic homeostasis

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          Abstract

          People who drink water contaminated with atrazine (ATR) over many years can experience problems with their cardiovascular system. Lycopene (LYC) has been shown to exhibit cardiovascular disease preventive effects. However, chemopreventive potential of LYC against ATR-induced cardiotoxicity remains unclear. To determine the effects of ATR and/or LYC on heart, mice were treated with ATR (50 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) and/or LYC (5 mg/kg) by intragastric administration for 21 days. Histopathological and biochemical analyses, including analysis of ion concentrations (Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+), ATPases (Na +-K +-ATPase, Ca 2+-ATPase, Mg 2+-ATPase and Ca 2+-Mg 2+-ATPase) activities and the transcription of their subunits, were performed on heart. The results revealed that ATR led to decreased Creative Kinase (CK) activity and increased histological alterations. Furthermore, a significant change in Na +, K + and Ca 2+ content and the down-regulation of Na +-K +-ATPase and Ca 2+-ATPase activities and the mRNA expression of their subunits were observed in ATR-exposed mice. Notably, supplementary LYC significantly protected the heart against ATR-induced damage. In conclusion, ATR induced cardiotoxicity by modulating cardiac ATPase activity and the transcription of its subunits, thereby triggering ionic disturbances. However, supplementary LYC significantly combated ATR-induced cardiotoxicity via the regulation of ATPase activity and subunit transcription. Thus, LYC exhibited a significant chemopreventive potential against ATR-induced cardiotoxicity.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Lycopene metabolism and its biological significance.

           Dong Wang (2012)
          The beneficial effects of a high intake of tomatoes and tomato products on the risk of certain chronic diseases have been presented in many epidemiologic studies, with the suggestion that lycopene (a major carotenoid in tomatoes) is a micronutrient with important health benefits. Within the past few years, we have gained greater knowledge of the metabolism of lycopene and the biological effects of lycopene derivatives. In particular, the characterization and study of β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase has shown that this enzyme can catalyze the excentric cleavage of both provitamin and non-provitamin A carotenoids to form apo-10'-carotenoids, including apo-10'-lycopenoids from lycopene. This raised an important question of whether the effect of lycopene on various cellular functions and signaling pathways is a result of the direct actions of intact lycopene or its derivatives. Several reports, including our own, support the notion that the biological activities of lycopene can be mediated by apo-10'-lycopenoids. More research is clearly needed to identify and characterize additional lycopene metabolites and their biological activities, which will potentially provide invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of lycopene in humans.
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            Lycopene and Its Antioxidant Role in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases-A Critical Review.

            The present review is based mainly on papers published between 2000 and 2011 and gives information about the properties of the carotenoid lycopene in chemical and biological systems and its possible role in preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The main aim of this report is to highlight its role as an antioxidant, also reported are bioactive properties that may influence the development of foam cells and protection against endothelial cell damage. The paper will also examine recent observations that lycopene may improve blood flow and reduce inflammatory responses. Lycopene possesses antioxidant properties in vitro, and some epidemiological studies have reported protective effects against the progression of CVD. The oxidation of human low density lipoproteins (LDL) is a fundamental mechanism in the initiation of atherosclerosis. A beneficial role of lycopene as antioxidant in the prevention of CVD is suggested but the data are still controversial. Lycopene is believed to be the most potent carotenoid antioxidant in vitro. Tissue culture experiments and animal studies support potential cardioprotective effects for lycopene and other carotenoids in the blood. Most studies showed beneficial effects of lycopene to individuals who are antioxidant-deficient like elderly patients, or humans exposed to higher levels of oxidative stress like smokers, diabetics, hemodialysis patients and acute myocardial infarction patients. By defining the right population and combining antioxidant potentials of lycopene with vitamins and other bioactive plant compounds, the beneficial role of lycopene in CVD can be clarified in future studies.
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              Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in vascular physiology and cardiovascular disease.

              The endothelium maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of active vasodilators. Although nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of conduit arteries, increased evidence for the role of another endothelium-derived vasodilator known as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) has accumulated in the last years. Despite the ongoing debate of its intriguingly variable nature and mechanisms of action, the contribution of EDHF to the endothelium-dependent relaxation is currently appreciated as an important feature of "healthy" endothelium. Since EDHF's contribution is greatest at level of small arteries, the changes in the EDHF action are of critical importance for the regulation of organ blood flow, peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure, and particularly when production of NO is compromised. Moreover, depending on the type of cardiovascular disorders altered EDHF responses may contribute to, or compensate for endothelial abnormalities associated with pathogenesis of certain disease. Consequently, an identification of vessel-specific nature of EDHF, its modulation of biological activity by selective activators or inhibitors might have a significant impact to our understanding of vascular maintenance in health and disease, and provide basis for novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, the contemporary knowledge about mechanism, function and dysfunction of EDHF-typed responses is systemized. The relevance of this part of endothelium-dependent relaxation for main cardiovascular complications is under discussion. Several issues, like gender differences and role of estrogen for EDHF contribution are summarized for the first time. Authors based on their own experience and data of literature propose several guidelines for future research in the field of EDHF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                26 April 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University , Harbin, 150030, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Division of Avian Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Harbin, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep24855
                10.1038/srep24855
                4845055
                27112537
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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