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      Acetaminophen for analgesia following pyloromyotomy: does the route of administration make a difference?

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          Abstract

          Background

          During the perioperative care of infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, an opioid-sparing technique is often advocated due to concerns such as postoperative hypoventilation and apnea. Although the rectal administration of acetaminophen is commonly employed, an intravenous (IV) preparation is also currently available, but only limited data are available regarding IV acetaminophen use for infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of IV and rectal acetaminophen for postoperative analgesia in infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy.

          Methods

          A retrospective review of the use of IV and rectal acetaminophen in infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was performed. The efficacy was assessed by evaluating the perioperative need for supplemental analgesic agents, postoperative pain scores, tracheal extubation time, time in the postanesthesia care unit, time to oral feeding, and time to hospital discharge.

          Results

          The study cohort included 68 patients, of whom 34 patients received IV acetaminophen and 34 received rectal acetaminophen. All patients also received local infiltration of the surgical site with 0.25% bupivacaine. No intraoperative opioids were administered. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to postoperative pain scores, need for supplemental analgesic agents, time in the postanesthesia care unit, or time in the hospital. There was no difference in the number of children who tolerated oral feeds on the day of surgery or in postoperative complications.

          Conclusion

          Our preliminary data suggest that there is no clinical difference or advantage with the use of IV versus rectal acetaminophen in infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

          Salicylic acid and salicylates, obtained from natural sources, have long been used as medicaments. Salicylic acid was chemically synthesized in 1860 and was used as an antiseptic, an antipyretic, and an antirheumatic. Almost 40 years later, aspirin was developed as a more palatable form of salicylate. Soon after, other drugs having similar actions to aspirin were discovered, and the group was termed the "aspirin-like drugs" (also now termed the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]). Twenty-five years ago, it was proposed that the mechanism of action of NSAIDs was through their inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis. Since then, there has been general acceptance of the concept that these drugs work by inhibition of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase (COX), which we now know to have at least two distinct isoforms: the constitutive isoform, COX-1, and the inducible isoform, COX-2. COX-1 has clear physiologic functions. Its activation leads, for instance, to the production of prostacyclin, which when released by the endothelium is antithrombogenic and when released by the gastric mucosa is cytoprotective. COX-2, discovered 6 years ago, is induced by inflammatory stimuli and cytokines in migratory and other cells. It is therefore attractive to suggest that the anti-inflammatory actions of NSAIDs are due to inhibition of COX-2, whereas the unwanted side-effects, such as irritation of the stomach lining, are due to inhibition of COX-1. Drugs that have the highest COX-2 activity and a more favorable COX-2: COX-1 activity ratio will have a potent anti-inflammatory activity with fewer side-effects than drugs with a less favorable COX-2: COX-1 activity ratio. The identification of selective inhibitors of COX-2 will therefore lead to advances in therapy.
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            Reliability and validity of the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability behavioral tool in assessing acute pain in critically ill patients.

            Few investigators have evaluated pain assessment tools in the critical care setting. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) Behavioral Scale in assessing pain in critically ill adults and children unable to self-report pain. Three nurses simultaneously, but independently, observed and scored pain behaviors twice in 29 critically ill adults and 8 children: before administration of an analgesic or during a painful procedure, and 15 to 30 minutes after the administration or procedure. Two nurses used the FLACC scale, the third used either the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (for adults) or the COMFORT scale (for children). For 73 observations, FLACC scores correlated highly with the other 2 scores (rho = 0.963 and 0.849, respectively), supporting criterion validity. Significant decreases in FLACC scores after analgesia (or at rest) supported construct validity of the tool (mean, 5.27; SD, 2.3 vs mean, 0.52; SD, 1.1; P < .001). Exact agreement and kappa statistics, as well as intraclass correlation coefficients (0.67-0.95), support excellent interrater reliability of the tool. Internal consistency was excellent; the Cronbach alpha was 0.882 when all items were included. Although similar in content to other behavioral pain scales, the FLACC can be used across populations of patients and settings, and the scores are comparable to those of the commonly used 0-to-10 number rating scale.
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              I.V. acetaminophen pharmacokinetics in neonates after multiple doses.

              Pharmacokinetics of an i.v. prodrug of acetaminophen (propacetamol) in neonates after repeat dosing are reported, with scant data for i.v. acetaminophen formulation. Neonates from an intensive care unit received 6-hourly prn i.v. acetaminophen dosed according to postmenstrual age (PMA): 28-32 weeks, 10 mg kg(-1); 32-36 weeks, 12.5 mg kg(-1); and > or =36 weeks, 15 mg kg(-1). A maximum of five blood samples for assay and liver function tests (LFTs) were collected. A one-compartment linear disposition model (zero-order input; first-order elimination) was used to describe time-concentration profiles using population modelling (NONMEM). Fifty neonates, median (range) PMA 38.6 (32-45) weeks, mean (SD) weight 2.9 (0.7) kg, received a mean of 15 doses over a median 4 days with 189 serum acetaminophen and 231 LFT measurements. Standardized population parameter estimates for a term neonate were clearance (CL) 5.24 (CV 30.5%) litre h(-1) 70 kg(-1) and volume of distribution (V) 76 (29.6%) litre 70 kg(-1). CL increased with PMA from 4.4 litre h(-1) 70 kg(-1) at 34 weeks to 6.3 litre h(-1) 70 kg(-1) at 46 weeks. The presence of unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with reduced CL: 150 micromol litre(-1) associated with 40% CL reduction. Acetaminophen concentrations between 10 and 23 mg litre(-1) at steady state are predicted after 15 mg kg(-1) 6-hourly for a neonate of PMA 40 weeks. Hepatic enzyme analysis of daily samples changed significantly for one patient whose alanine aminotransferase concentration tripled. The parameter estimates are similar to those described for propacetamol. There was no evidence of hepatotoxicity. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia impacts upon CL, dictating dose reduction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                08 March 2016
                : 9
                : 123-127
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA
                [3 ]Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Arvid Yung, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA, Email Arvid.Yung@ 123456Nationwidechildrens.org
                Article
                jpr-9-123
                10.2147/JPR.S100607
                4790489
                27022299
                © 2016 Yung et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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