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Molecular analyses uncover the phylogenetic placement of the lichenized hyphomycetous genus Cheiromycina

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      ABSTRACT

      The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known. Here we inferred the phylogenetic placement of Cheiromycina using three loci (nuSSU, nuLSU, and mtSSU) representing C. flabelliformis, the type species for the genus, C. petri, and C. reimeri. Our results revealed that the genus Cheiromycina is found within the family Malmideaceae (Lecanorales) where members formed a monophyletic clade sister to the genera Savoronala and Malmidea. This phylogenetic placement and the relationships of Cheiromycina with other lichenized hyphomycetous taxa are here discussed.

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      A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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        MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution.

        The program MODELTEST uses log likelihood scores to establish the model of DNA evolution that best fits the data. The MODELTEST package, including the source code and some documentation is available at http://bioag.byu. edu/zoology/crandall_lab/modeltest.html.
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          TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ a ] Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste , via Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy
            [ b ] Institute of Environmental Sciences CML, Leiden University , Einsteinweg 2, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands
            [ c ] Department of Natural History, University Museum, University of Bergen , Allegt. 41, 7800, N-5020 Bergen, Norway
            [ d ] Department of Plant Taxonomy and Nature Conservation, University of Gdańsk , Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
            [ e ] Institute of Botany, Academy of Science of Czech Republic , Zámek 1, CZ-25243 Průhonice, Czech Republic
            [ f ] Department of Botany, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles University , Benátská 2, CZ-12801 Praha, Czech Republic
            Author notes

            Color versions of one or more of the figures in this article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/umyc.

            Journal
            Mycologia
            Mycologia
            UMYC
            umyc20
            Mycologia
            Taylor & Francis
            0027-5514
            1557-2536
            2017
            06 December 2017
            : 109
            : 4
            : 588-600
            29211626 5769673 1397476 10.1080/00275514.2017.1397476
            © 2017 Lucia Muggia, Riccardo Mancinelli, Tor Tønsberg, Agnieszka Jablonska, Martin Kukwa, and Zdeněk Palice. Published by Taylor & Francis.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

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            Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 93, Pages: 13
            Product
            Funding
            Funded by: Akademie Věd České Republiky 10.13039/501100004240
            Award ID: RVO67985939
            Funded by: Austrian Science Fund 10.13039/501100002428
            Award ID: P24114-B16
            Funded by: Polish-Norwegian Research Programme
            Award ID: Pol-Nor/196829/87/2013
            L.M. was financially supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF project P24114-B16). M.K. has received financial support by the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009–2014 in the frame of project contract no. Pol-Nor/196829/87/2013. L.M. and T.T. are grateful to the National Park Service (NPS) and to the Southwest Alaska Network Anchorage for funding. Z.P. acknowledges the development project no. RVO67985939 from the Czech Academy of Sciences and institutional resources of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic for the support of science and research.
            Categories
            Article
            Molecular Evoloution and Systematics

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