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      Outdoor thermal comfort and outdoor activities: A review of research in the past decade

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      Cities
      Elsevier BV

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          The physiological equivalent temperature - a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment.

          P Hoppe (1999)
          With considerably increased coverage of weather information in the news media in recent years in many countries, there is also more demand for data that are applicable and useful for everyday life. Both the perception of the thermal component of weather as well as the appropriate clothing for thermal comfort result from the integral effects of all meteorological parameters relevant for heat exchange between the body and its environment. Regulatory physiological processes can affect the relative importance of meteorological parameters, e.g. wind velocity becomes more important when the body is sweating. In order to take into account all these factors, it is necessary to use a heat-balance model of the human body. The physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is based on the Munich Energy-balance Model for Individuals (MEMI), which models the thermal conditions of the human body in a physiologically relevant way. PET is defined as the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting (without wind and solar radiation), the heat budget of the human body is balanced with the same core and skin temperature as under the complex outdoor conditions to be assessed. This way PET enables a layperson to compare the integral effects of complex thermal conditions outside with his or her own experience indoors. On hot summer days, for example, with direct solar irradiation the PET value may be more than 20 K higher than the air temperature, on a windy day in winter up to 15 K lower.
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            Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments--application of the RayMan model.

            The most important meteorological parameter affecting the human energy balance during sunny weather conditions is the mean radiant temperature T(mrt). It considers the uniform temperature of a surrounding surface giving off blackbody radiation, which results in the same energy gain of a human body given the prevailing radiation fluxes. This energy gain usually varies considerably in open space conditions. In this paper, the model 'RayMan', used for the calculation of short- and long-wave radiation fluxes on the human body, is presented. The model, which takes complex urban structures into account, is suitable for several applications in urban areas such as urban planning and street design. The final output of the model is, however, the calculated T(mrt), which is required in the human energy balance model, and thus also for the assessment of the urban bioclimate, with the use of thermal indices such as predicted mean vote (PMV), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and standard effective temperature (SET*). The model has been developed based on the German VDI-Guidelines 3789, Part II (environmental meteorology, interactions between atmosphere and surfaces; calculation of short- and long-wave radiation) and VDI-3787 (environmental meteorology, methods for the human-biometeorological evaluation of climate and air quality for urban and regional planning. Part I: climate). The validation of the results of the RayMan model agrees with similar results obtained from experimental studies.
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              Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature.

              The physiological equivalent temperature, PET, is a thermal index derived from the human energy balance. It is well suited to the evaluation of the thermal component of different climates. As well as having a detailed physiological basis, PET is preferable to other thermal indexes like the predicted mean vote because of its unit ( degrees C), which makes results more comprehensible to urban or regional planners, for example, who are not so familiar with modern human-biometeorological terminology. PET results can be presented graphically or as bioclimatic maps. Graphs mostly display the temporal behaviour of PET, whereas spatial distribution is specified in bioclimatic maps. In this article, some applications of PET are discussed. They relate to the evaluation of the urban heat island in cities in both temperate climates and warm climates at high altitude. The thermal component of the microclimate in the trunk space of a deciduous forest is also evaluated by PET. As an example of the spatial distribution of PET, a bioclimatic map for Greece in July (Mediterranean climate) is presented.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cities
                Cities
                Elsevier BV
                02642751
                April 2012
                April 2012
                : 29
                : 2
                : 118-125
                Article
                10.1016/j.cities.2011.08.006
                c1f58063-b179-4b8d-ac32-6ecdef9becc3
                © 2012

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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