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      Increased risk of venous thromboembolism associated with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM/DM) have been implicated in the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Previous studies investigating the association between PM/DM and VTE risk had yielded inconsistent findings. The aim of this study was to precisely estimate this association by meta-analysis of all available publications.

          Methods

          Two investigators independently performed a comprehensive literature search in databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies. The strength for the association was weighed by pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Stratified analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed for further analysis.

          Results

          Six studies including 9,045 patients with PM/DM were analyzed. The pooled OR suggested that inflammatory myositis was associated with increased risk of VTE (OR =4.31, 95% CI: 2.55–7.29, P<0.001). Besides, significantly elevated risk of VTE was related with PM and DM, respectively (for PM: OR =6.87, 95% CI: 4.12–11.46, P<0.001; for DM: OR =11.59, 95% CI: 6.54–20.55, P<0.001). In addition, inflammatory myositis could increase the risk of DVT (OR =4.85, 95% CI: 1.38–17.12, P<0.05) and PE (OR =4.74, 95% CI: 2.18–10.30, P<0.05). Sensitivity analysis did not materially alter the pooled results.

          Conclusion

          Our study shows strong evidence that patients with inflammatory myositis have an increased risk of VTE.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Risk of venous thromboembolism in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record-linkage study

          Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after a hospital admission. Although it is mainly considered a complication of surgery, it often occurs in people who have not undergone surgery, with recent evidence suggesting that immune-mediated diseases may play a role in VTE risk. We, therefore, decided to study the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in people admitted to hospital with a range of immune-mediated diseases. Methods We analysed databases of linked statistical records of hospital admissions and death certificates for the Oxford Record Linkage Study area (ORLS1:1968 to 1998 and ORLS2:1999 to 2008) and the whole of England (1999 to 2008). Rate ratios for VTE were determined, comparing immune-mediated disease cohorts with comparison cohorts. Results Significantly elevated risks of VTE were found, in all three populations studied, in people with a hospital record of admission for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, chronic active hepatitis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myxoedema, pemphigus/pemphigoid, polyarteritis nodosa, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Rate ratios were considerably higher for some of these diseases than others: for example, for systemic lupus erythematosus the rate ratios were 3.61 (2.36 to 5.31) in the ORLS1 population, 4.60 (3.19 to 6.43) in ORLS2 and 3.71 (3.43 to 4.02) in the England dataset. Conclusions People admitted to hospital with immune-mediated diseases may be at an increased risk of subsequent VTE. Our findings need independent confirmation or refutation; but, if confirmed, there may be a role for thromboprophylaxis in some patients with these diseases.
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            Platelets in inflammation and thrombosis.

            For many years it has been known that platelets play an important role in thrombosis and hemostasis. In recent times, however, it has become evident that platelets also have relevant functions in inflammation. It was shown that thrombosis and inflammation share several key molecular mechanisms and in fact are 2 intrinsically linked processes. In this review, we intend to give a short overview with emphasis on work stemming from our laboratory.
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              Risk of pulmonary embolism in patients with autoimmune disorders: a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden.

              Some autoimmune disorders have been linked to venous thromboembolism. We examined whether there is an association between autoimmune disorders and risk of pulmonary embolism. We followed up all individuals in Sweden without previous hospital admission for venous thromboembolism and with a primary or secondary diagnosis of an autoimmune disorder between Jan 1, 1964, and Dec 31, 2008, for hospital admission for pulmonary embolism. We obtained data from the MigMed2 database, which has individual-level information about all registered residents of Sweden. The reference population was the total population of Sweden. We calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for pulmonary embolism, adjusted for individual variables, including age and sex. 535,538 individuals were admitted to hospital because of an autoimmune disorder. Overall risk of pulmonary embolism during the first year after admission for an autoimmune disorder was 6·38 (95% CI 6·19-6·57). All the 33 autoimmune disorders were associated with a significantly increased risk of pulmonary embolism during the first year after admission. However, some had a particularly high risk--eg, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (10·79, 95% CI 7·98-14·28), polyarteritis nodosa (13·26, 9·33-18·29), polymyositis or dermatomyositis (16·44, 11·57-22·69), and systemic lupus erythematosus (10·23, 8·31-12·45). Overall risk decreased over time, from 1·53 (1·48-1·57) at 1-5 years, to 1·15 (1·11-1·20) at 5-10 years, and 1·04 (1·00-1·07) at 10 years and later. The risk was increased for both sexes and all age groups. Autoimmune disorders are associated with a high risk of pulmonary embolism in the first year after hospital admission. Our findings suggest that these disorders in general should be regarded as hypercoagulable disorders. Swedish Research Council, Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Swedish Research Council Formas, Region Skåne. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                23 January 2018
                : 14
                : 157-165
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang
                [2 ]Department of Interventional Oncology, Weifang Tumor Hospital, Weifang
                [3 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang
                [5 ]School of Nursing, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yuxiu Liu, School of Nursing, Weifang Medical University, No 7166 Baotong West Road, Weicheng District, Weifang 261053, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 186 6360 8162, Email 18663608162@ 123456163.com
                Article
                tcrm-14-157
                10.2147/TCRM.S157085
                5788999
                © 2018 Li et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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