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      The Advantages of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel for Patients with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

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          Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is a new type of administration that results in steadier levodopa plasma concentrations in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and effectively reduces poor mobility and dyskinesia.


          Electronic databases were searched up to January 1, 2018. The inclusion criteria for this review were as follows: LCIG vs oral medication in advanced PD patients.


          Five trials, with a total of 198 patients, met all the inclusion criteria. The quality score of these studies ranged from 3 to 5. Two clinical trials showed that compared with oral medication, LCIG had a better treatment effect on on-time with troublesome dyskinesia (TSD) ( p = 0.02) and on-time without TSD ( p < 0.00001) in advanced PD patients. In addition, four of the 5 studies showed that the LCIG may have better efficacy than oral medication for improving the scores of the UPDRS, and two studies found that LCIG demonstrated better efficacy for improving the PDQ-39 scores. The video recording results indicated a potential decline in both dyskinesia and the “off” state in LCIG-treated patients. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the LCIG and oral medication groups.


          Compared with oral treatment, LCIG exerts its effectiveness, mostly by reducing the time of on-time with TSD, increasing the time of on-time without TSD and scores of UPDRS and PDQ-39. It is suggesting that LCIG was likely to be a new type of administration used in clinical applications. However, due to methodological flaws, these findings should be viewed with caution, and more RCTs are needed in the field to complement our findings.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Continuous intrajejunal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study.

          Levodopa is the most effective therapy for Parkinson's disease, but chronic treatment is associated with the development of potentially disabling motor complications. Experimental studies suggest that motor complications are due to non-physiological, intermittent administration of the drug, and can be reduced with continuous delivery. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel delivered continuously through an intrajejunal percutaneous tube. In our 12-week, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, double-titration trial, we enrolled adults (aged ≥ 30 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease and motor complications at 26 centres in Germany, New Zealand, and the USA. Eligible participants had jejunal placement of a percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube, and were then randomly allocated (1:1) to treatment with immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa plus placebo intestinal gel infusion or levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion plus oral placebo. Randomisation was stratified by site, with a mixed block size of 2 or 4. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to final visit in motor off-time. We assessed change in motor on-time without troublesome dyskinesia as a prespecified key secondary outcome. We assessed efficacy in a full-analysis set of participants with data for baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment, and imputed missing data with the last observation carried forward approach. We assessed safety in randomly allocated patients who underwent the percutaneous gastrojejunostomy procedure. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00660387 and NCT0357994. From baseline to 12 weeks in the full-analysis set, mean off-time decreased by 4.04 h (SE 0.65) for 35 patients allocated to the levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel group compared with a decrease of 2.14 h (0.66) for 31 patients allocated to immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa (difference -1.91 h [95% CI -3.05 to -0.76]; p=0.0015). Mean on-time without troublesome dyskinesia increased by 4.11 h (SE 0.75) in the intestinal gel group and 2.24 h (0.76) in the immediate-release oral group (difference 1.86 [95% CI 0.56 to 3.17]; p=0.0059). In the safety analyses 35 (95%) of 37 patients allocated to the levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel group had adverse events (five [14%] serious), as did 34 (100%) of 34 patients allocated to the immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa group (seven [21%] serious), mainly associated with the percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube. Continuous delivery of levodopa-carbidopa with an intestinal gel offers a promising option for control of advanced Parkinson's disease with motor complications. Benefits noted with intestinal gel delivery were of a greater magnitude than were those obtained with medical therapies to date, and our study is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of the benefit of continuous levodopa delivery in a double-blind controlled study. AbbVie. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Meta-analysis of data from animal studies: a practical guide.

            Meta-analyses of data from human studies are invaluable resources in the life sciences and the methods to conduct these are well documented. Similarly there are a number of benefits in conducting meta-analyses on data from animal studies; they can be used to inform clinical trial design, or to try and explain discrepancies between preclinical and clinical trial results. However there are inherit differences between animal and human studies and so applying the same techniques for the meta-analysis of preclinical data is not straightforward. For example preclinical studies are frequently small and there is often substantial heterogeneity between studies. This may have an impact on both the method of calculating an effect size and the method of pooling data. Here we describe a practical guide for the meta-analysis of data from animal studies including methods used to explore sources of heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Duodenal levodopa infusion monotherapy vs oral polypharmacy in advanced Parkinson disease.

              To compare daytime intraduodenal levodopa/carbidopa infusion as monotherapy with individually optimized conventional combination therapies in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) for motor fluctuations and quality of life (QoL). Twenty-four patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia were studied in a randomized crossover design to compare individualized conventional treatment and intraduodenal infusion of a levodopa/carbidopa gel for 3 + 3 weeks. Video scoring of motor function was assessed by blinded assessors on a global Treatment Response Scale from -3 to 0 to +3 (from severe "off" to "on" to "on" with severe dyskinesia). Patient self-assessment of motor performance and QoL was done using an electronic diary. Median percentage of ratings in a functional "on" interval (-1 to +1) was increased from 81 to 100% by infusion therapy (p < 0.01). This improvement was accompanied by a decrease in "off" state (p < 0.01) and no increase in dyskinesia. Median Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score decreased from 53 to 35 in favor of infusion (p < 0.05). QoL was improved, using the two instruments: Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 and 15D Quality of Life Instrument (p < 0.01). Adverse events were similar for both treatment strategies. Continuous intraduodenal infusion of the levodopa/carbidopa enteral gel as monotherapy is safe and clinically superior to a number of individually optimized combinations of conventional oral and subcutaneous medications in patients with motor fluctuations. Intraduodenal infusion of levodopa offers an important alternative in treating patients with advanced Parkinson disease.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                26 February 2020
                : 14
                : 845-854
                [1 ]The Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou 325000, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]The Department of General Surgery, The Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical College of Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310000, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Neurology, Huzhou Central Hospital , Huzhou 313000, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Aging and Neurological Disorder Research, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou 325000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cheng-Long Xie; Jin-Cai He Tel/Fax +86 577 88 83 2693 Email cl_xie1987@sohu.com; hjc@wmu.edu.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2020 Zhang et al.

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 24, Pages: 10


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