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      Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An ASTRO, ASCO, and AUA Evidence-Based Guideline

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          Conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: 5-year outcomes of the randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 CHHiP trial

          Summary Background Prostate cancer might have high radiation-fraction sensitivity that would give a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionated treatment. We present a pre-planned analysis of the efficacy and side-effects of a randomised trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated radiotherapy after 5 years follow-up. Methods CHHiP is a randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial that recruited men with localised prostate cancer (pT1b–T3aN0M0). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to conventional (74 Gy delivered in 37 fractions over 7·4 weeks) or one of two hypofractionated schedules (60 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks or 57 Gy in 19 fractions over 3·8 weeks) all delivered with intensity-modulated techniques. Most patients were given radiotherapy with 3–6 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen suppression. Randomisation was by computer-generated random permuted blocks, stratified by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group and radiotherapy treatment centre, and treatment allocation was not masked. The primary endpoint was time to biochemical or clinical failure; the critical hazard ratio (HR) for non-inferiority was 1·208. Analysis was by intention to treat. Long-term follow-up continues. The CHHiP trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN97182923. Findings Between Oct 18, 2002, and June 17, 2011, 3216 men were enrolled from 71 centres and randomly assigned (74 Gy group, 1065 patients; 60 Gy group, 1074 patients; 57 Gy group, 1077 patients). Median follow-up was 62·4 months (IQR 53·9–77·0). The proportion of patients who were biochemical or clinical failure free at 5 years was 88·3% (95% CI 86·0–90·2) in the 74 Gy group, 90·6% (88·5–92·3) in the 60 Gy group, and 85·9% (83·4–88·0) in the 57 Gy group. 60 Gy was non-inferior to 74 Gy (HR 0·84 [90% CI 0·68–1·03], pNI=0·0018) but non-inferiority could not be claimed for 57 Gy compared with 74 Gy (HR 1·20 [0·99–1·46], pNI=0·48). Long-term side-effects were similar in the hypofractionated groups compared with the conventional group. There were no significant differences in either the proportion or cumulative incidence of side-effects 5 years after treatment using three clinician-reported as well as patient-reported outcome measures. The estimated cumulative 5 year incidence of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2 or worse bowel and bladder adverse events was 13·7% (111 events) and 9·1% (66 events) in the 74 Gy group, 11·9% (105 events) and 11·7% (88 events) in the 60 Gy group, 11·3% (95 events) and 6·6% (57 events) in the 57 Gy group, respectively. No treatment-related deaths were reported. Interpretation Hypofractionated radiotherapy using 60 Gy in 20 fractions is non-inferior to conventional fractionation using 74 Gy in 37 fractions and is recommended as a new standard of care for external-beam radiotherapy of localised prostate cancer. Funding Cancer Research UK, Department of Health, and the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network.
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            Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: pooled analysis from a multi-institutional consortium of prospective phase II trials.

            The effectiveness of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer is tested. A total of 1100 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were enrolled in separate prospective phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT from 8 institutions during 2003-11 and pooled for analysis. SBRT using the CyberKnife delivered a median dose of 36.25Gy in 4-5 fractions. Patients were low-risk (58%), intermediate-risk (30%) and high-risk (11%). A short-course of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was given to 14%. PSA relapse defined as a rise >2ng/ml above nadir was analyzed with the Kaplan Meier method. With a median follow-up of 36months there were 49 patients with PSA failure (4.5%), 9 of whom were subsequently determined to be benign PSA bounces. The 5-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) rate was 93% for all patients; 95%, 83% and 78% for GS ⩽6, 7 and ⩾8, respectively (p=0.001), and 95%, 84% and 81% for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively (p 0.2ng/ml was noted among 16% of patients. For 135 patients possessing a minimum of 5years follow-up, the 5-year bRFS rate for low- and intermediate-risk patients was 99% and 93%, respectively. PSA relapse-free survival rates after SBRT compare favorably with other definitive treatments for low and intermediate risk patients. The current evidence supports consideration of SBRT among the therapeutic options for these patients. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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              Long-term outcomes from a prospective trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer.

              Hypofractionated radiotherapy has an intrinsically different normal tissue and tumor radiobiology. The results of a prospective trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer with long-term patient-reported toxicity and tumor control rates are presented. From 2003 through 2009, 67 patients with clinically localized low-risk prostate cancer were enrolled. Treatment consisted of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions using SBRT with the CyberKnife as the delivery technology. No patient received hormone therapy. Patient self-reported bladder and rectal toxicities were graded on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale (RTOG). Median follow-up was 2.7 years. There were no grade 4 toxicities. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3, 2, and 1 bladder toxicities were seen in 3% (2 patients), 5% (3 patients), and 23% (13 patients) respectively. Dysuria exacerbated by urologic instrumentation accounted for both patients with Grade 3 toxicity. Urinary incontinence, complete obstruction, or persistent hematuria was not observed. Rectal Grade 3, 2, and 1 toxicities were seen in 0, 2% (1 patient), and 12.5% (7 patients), respectively. Persistent rectal bleeding was not observed. Low-grade toxicities were substantially less frequent with QOD vs. QD dose regimen (p = 0.001 for gastrointestinal and p = 0.007 for genitourinary). There were two prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy-proven failures with negative metastatic workup. Median PSA at follow-up was 0.5 ± 0.72 ng/mL. The 4-year Kaplan-Meier PSA relapse-free survival was 94% (95% confidence interval, 85%-102%). Significant late bladder and rectal toxicities from SBRT for prostate cancer are infrequent. PSA relapse-free survival compares favorably with other definitive treatments. The current evidence supports consideration of stereotactic body radiotherapy among the therapeutic options for localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Oncology
                JCO
                American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
                0732-183X
                1527-7755
                October 11 2018
                October 11 2018
                : JCO.18.01097
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Scott C. Morgan, The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Ottawa; D. Andrew Loblaw, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Karen Hoffman, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Mark K. Buyyounouski, Stanford University, Stanford; Palto Alto VA Health System, Palo Alto, CA; Caroline Patton, American Society for Radiation Oncology, Arlington, VA; Daniel Barocas, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; Soren Bentzen, University of Maryland...
                Article
                10.1200/JCO.18.01097
                6269129
                30307776
                © 2018
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