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      Angiosome~From the Standpoint of Bypass Surgery

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          Abstract

          Although several studies showed that angiosome-guided endovascular treatment improved wound healing and major amputation rates in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI), effectiveness of the angiosome concept to the treatment of ischemic foot remains to be elucidated, especially in bypass surgery. Arterial anatomy of the foot and ankle shows that there are multiple supplementary circulation including arterial–arterial connections and choke nexus, which indicates angiosome concept may carry limited importance in bypass surgery for CLTI. On the other hand, patients with diabetes or renal dysfunction have partial occlusion of arterial–arterial connections and, therefore, quite a few patients with CLTI in Japan may present with limited but impaired supplementary circulation around the ankle. This article reviews the arterial anatomy and circulation of the foot and ankle and discusses availability and limitations of angiosome-guided bypass surgery.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Angiosomes of the leg: anatomic study and clinical implications.

          In 1987, Taylor and Palmer introduced the angiosome concept. This anatomical study defined the three-dimensional vascular territories supplied by source arteries and veins to each tissue layer between the skin and the bone. This report, however, was an overview investigation and did not study each region of the body in fine detail. In 1996, Inoue and Taylor studied the angiosomes of the forearm in much greater detail. They showed, among other findings, that the zone between the angiosomes, formed by reduced caliber (choke) vessels or similar caliber (true) anastomotic arteries, occurred usually within tissues, especially the muscles, not between them. This study focuses on the same region in the lower limb to draw a comparison and to fill certain voids in our knowledge--the leg. Twelve lower limbs from fresh cadavers were investigated over a 2-year period after perfusing each with a mixture containing radio-opaque lead oxide. The anatomy of the arterial supply to the skin, the muscles, and the periosteum of the bones of the leg was examined. The contribution to each tissue was defined by dissection, by metal clip tagging of vessels, by radiography, and by mapping the branches with colored pins, coded to match the respective source arteries. A subtraction technique was used to study the muscles whereby the bones of the limb were replaced with radiolucent balloons to obtain an unobscured picture of the vasculature of the leg. The muscles were then segregated one by one from the muscle mass and x-rayed again. Next, cross-section studies were made in two legs to complete the three-dimensional picture, tracing the branches from the source arteries to each layer. Finally, the contribution to each tissue from the popliteal, sural, anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and peroneal vessels were color coded to match these source arteries, thus defining the angiosomes of the leg. Results, as in the forearm, showed that in most cases the connections between adjacent angiosomes occurred within tissues, not between them. The skin, the bones, and most muscles received branches from two or more angiosomes, thus revealing one of the important anastomotic pathways through which the circulation is reconstituted when a source artery is interrupted by disease or trauma. Notably, however, the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg were supplied from one angiosome. This finding, coupled with the anatomy of the rigid fascial compartments of the leg, helps explain the variable clinical pictures and syndromes seen in cases in which the circulation is compromised or interrupted. Finally, this anatomical study adds further information to help design or redesign flaps in the leg for local or free transfer. Similarly, the information reveals the pathways through which the supply to the remaining tissues is reconstituted when one of the source arteries is harvested with a free flap, especially when multiple tissues are included in the transplant.
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            Global Vascular Guidelines on the Management of Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia

            Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with mortality, amputation, and impaired quality of life. These Global Vascular Guidelines (GVG) are focused on definition, evaluation, and management of CLTI with the goals of improving evidence-based care and highlighting critical research needs. The term CLTI is preferred over critical limb ischemia, as the latter implies threshold values of impaired perfusion rather than a continuum. CLTI is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in combination with rest pain, gangrene, or a lower limb ulceration >2 weeks duration. Venous, traumatic, embolic, and nonatherosclerotic etiologies are excluded. All patients with suspected CLTI should be referred urgently to a vascular specialist. Accurately staging the severity of limb threat is fundamental, and the Society for Vascular Surgery Threatened Limb Classification system, based on grading of Wounds, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) is endorsed. Objective hemodynamic testing, including toe pressures as the preferred measure, is required to assess CLTI. Evidence-based revascularization (EBR) hinges on three independent axes: Patient risk, Limb severity, and ANatomic complexity (PLAN). Average-risk and high-risk patients are defined by estimated procedural and 2-year all-cause mortality. The GVG proposes a new Global Anatomic Staging System (GLASS), which involves defining a preferred target artery path (TAP) and then estimating limb-based patency (LBP), resulting in three stages of complexity for intervention. The optimal revascularization strategy is also influenced by the availability of autogenous vein for open bypass surgery. Recommendations for EBR are based on best available data, pending level 1 evidence from ongoing trials. Vein bypass may be preferred for average-risk patients with advanced limb threat and high complexity disease, while those with less complex anatomy, intermediate severity limb threat, or high patient risk may be favored for endovascular intervention. All patients with CLTI should be afforded best medical therapy including the use of antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and glycemic control agents, as well as counseling on smoking cessation, diet, exercise, and preventive foot care. Following EBR, long-term limb surveillance is advised. The effectiveness of nonrevascularization therapies (eg, spinal stimulation, pneumatic compression, prostanoids, and hyperbaric oxygen) has not been established. Regenerative medicine approaches (eg, cell, gene therapies) for CLTI should be restricted to rigorously conducted randomizsed clinical trials. The GVG promotes standardization of study designs and end points for clinical trials in CLTI. The importance of multidisciplinary teams and centers of excellence for amputation prevention is stressed as a key health system initiative.
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              The anatomical (angiosome) and clinical territories of cutaneous perforating arteries: development of the concept and designing safe flaps.

              Island "perforator flaps" have become state of the art for free-skin flap transfer. Recent articles by Saint-Cyr et al. and Rozen et al. have focused on the anatomical and the clinical territories of individual cutaneous perforating arteries in flap planning, and it is timely to compare this work with our angiosome concept. The angiosome concept, published in 1987, was reviewed and correlated with key experimental and clinical work by the authors, published subsequently at different times in different journals. In addition, new data are introduced to define these anatomical and clinical territories of the cutaneous perforators and to aid in the planning of safe skin flaps for local and free-flap transfer. The anatomical territory of a cutaneous perforator was defined in the pig, dog, guinea pig, and rabbit by a line drawn through its perimeter of anastomotic vessels that link it with adjacent perforators in all directions. The safe clinical territory of that perforator, seen not only in the same range of animals but also in the human using either the Doppler probe or computed tomography angiography to locate the vessels, was found reliably to extend to include the anatomical territory of the next adjacent cutaneous perforator, situated radially in any direction. The data provided by Saint-Cyr et al. and Rozen et al., coupled with the authors' own original work on the vascular territories of the body and their subsequent studies, reinforce the angiosome concept and provide the basis for the design of safe flaps for patient benefit.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Vasc Dis
                Ann Vasc Dis
                avd
                Annals of Vascular Diseases
                Japanese College of Angiology / The Japanese Society for Vascular Surgery / Japanese Society of Phlebology (Italian Cultural Institute Building 8F, Kudan-Minami 2-1-30, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0074, Japan )
                1881-641X
                1881-6428
                25 June 2020
                : 13
                : 2
                : 126-131
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Kawagoe, Saitama, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Juno Deguchi, MD, PhD. Department of Vascular Surgery, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, 1981 Kamoda, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8550, Japan Tel: +81-49-228-3400, Fax: +81-49-228-3462, E-mail: jdegu-tky@ 123456umin.ac.jp
                Article
                10.3400/avd.ra.20-00042
                7315229
                Copyright © 2020 Annals of Vascular Diseases

                ©2020 The Editorial Committee of Annals of Vascular Diseases. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the credit of the original work, a link to the license, and indication of any change are properly given, and the original work is not used for commercial purposes. Remixed or transformed contributions must be distributed under the same license as the original.

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