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      Historical and present state of neuromodulation in chronic pain.

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      Current pain and headache reports

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          Abstract

          Neuromodulation is based on the revolutionary concept that paresthesia-inducing electrical stimulation could be analgesic. Its historical basis emanates from Melzack and Wall's gate control theory of pain proposed in 1965. Neuromodulation has given us ready access to the systems of pain modulation and helped mature the understanding of the pathophysiology of pain. Physiologic studies highlight the complex ascending influence of neurostimulation on sensory processing. However, the present understanding of pain is rudimentary and evidence that neuromodulation works is modest. This paper emphasizes the historical antecedents, present state, and emerging future of 3 commonly applied neuromodulatory techniques--spinal cord stimulation, peripheral nerve and field stimulation, and deep brain stimulation--for chronic pain. It is hoped this article will enhance the understanding of neuromodulation and its role in pain management.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Curr Pain Headache Rep
          Current pain and headache reports
          1534-3081
          1534-3081
          Jan 2014
          : 18
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Regina General Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK, S4P 0W5, Canada, krishna.kumar902@gmail.com.
          Article
          10.1007/s11916-013-0387-y
          24338734

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