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      Patient risk factors for developing a drug-related problem in a cardiology ward

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          Because of the high incidence of drug-related problems (DRPs) among hospitalized patients with cardiovascular diseases and their potential impact on morbidity and mortality, it is important to identify the most susceptible patients, who therefore require closer monitoring of drug therapy.


          To identify the profile of patients at higher risk of developing at least one DRP during hospitalization in a cardiology ward.


          We consecutively included all patients hospitalized in the cardiology ward of a teaching hospital in 2009. DRPs were identified through a computerized warning system designed by the pharmacy department and integrated into the electronic medical record.


          A total of 964 admissions were included, and at least one DRP was detected in 29.8%. The variables associated with a higher risk of these events were polypharmacy (odds ratio [OR]=1.228; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.153–1.308), female sex (OR=1.496; 95% CI=1.026–2.180), and first admission (OR=1.494; 95% CI=1.005–2.221).


          Monitoring patients through a computerized warning system allowed the detection of at least one DRP in one-third of the patients. Knowledge of the risk factors for developing these problems in patients admitted to hospital for cardiovascular problems helps in identifying the most susceptible patients.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Multidisciplinary strategies for the management of heart failure patients at high risk for admission: a systematic review of randomized trials.

          The aim of this study was to determine whether multidisciplinary strategies improve outcomes for heart failure (HF) patients. Because the prognosis of HF remains poor despite pharmacotherapy, there is increasing interest in alternative models of care delivery for these patients. Randomized trials of multidisciplinary management programs in HF were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. Twenty-nine trials (5,039 patients) were identified but were not pooled, because of considerable heterogeneity. A priori, we divided the interventions into homogeneous groups that were suitable for pooling. Strategies that incorporated follow-up by a specialized multidisciplinary team (either in a clinic or a non-clinic setting) reduced mortality (risk ratio [RR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59 to 0.96), HF hospitalizations (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87), and all-cause hospitalizations (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92). Programs that focused on enhancing patient self-care activities reduced HF hospitalizations (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83) and all-cause hospitalizations (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.93) but had no effect on mortality (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.94). Strategies that employed telephone contact and advised patients to attend their primary care physician in the event of deterioration reduced HF hospitalizations (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.99) but not mortality (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.29) or all-cause hospitalizations (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.20). In 15 of 18 trials that evaluated cost, multidisciplinary strategies were cost-saving. Multidisciplinary strategies for the management of patients with HF reduce HF hospitalizations. Those programs that involve specialized follow-up by a multidisciplinary team also reduce mortality and all-cause hospitalizations.
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            Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality.

            To determine the excess length of stay, extra costs, and mortality attributable to adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients. Matched case-control study. The LDS Hospital, a tertiary care health care institution. All patients admitted to LDS Hospital from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1993, were eligible. Cases were defined as patients with ADEs that occurred during hospitalization; controls were selected according to matching variables in a stepwise fashion. Controls were matched to cases on primary discharge diagnosis related group (DRG), age, sex, acuity, and year of admission; varying numbers of controls were matched to each case. Matching was successful for 71% of the cases, leading to 1580 cases and 20,197 controls. Crude and attributable mortality, crude and attributable length of stay, and cost of hospitalization. ADEs complicated 2.43 per 100 admissions to the LDS Hospital during the study period. The crude mortality rates for the cases and matched controls were 3.5% and 1.05%, respectively (P<.001). The mean length of hospital stay significantly differed between the cases and matched controls (7.69 vs 4.46 days; P<.001) as did the mean cost of hospitalization ($10,010 vs $5355; P<.001). The extra length of hospital stay attributable to an ADE was 1.74 days (P<.001). The excess cost of hospitalization attributable to an ADE was $2013 (P<.001). A linear regression analysis for length of stay and cost controlling for all matching variables revealed that the occurrence of an ADE was associated with increased length of stay of 1.91 days and an increased cost of $2262 (P<.001). In a similar logistic regression analysis for mortality, the increased risk of death among patients experiencing an ADE was 1.88 (95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.22; P<.001). The attributable lengths of stay and costs of hospitalization for ADEs are substantial. An ADE is associated with a significantly prolonged length of stay, increased economic burden, and an almost 2-fold increased risk of death.
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              The costs of adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Adverse Drug Events Prevention Study Group.

               D Bates,  N Spell,  D J Cullen (2015)
              To assess the additional resource utilization associated with an adverse drug event (ADE). Nested case-control study within a prospective cohort study. The cohort included 4108 admissions to a stratified random sample of 11 medical and surgical units in 2 tertiary-care hospitals over a 6-month period. Cases were patients with an ADE, and the control for each case was the patient on the same unit as the case with the most similar pre-event length of stay. Postevent length of stay and total costs. Incidents were detected by self-report stimulated by nurses and pharmacists and by daily chart review, and were classified as to whether they represented ADEs. Information on length of stay and charges was obtained from billing data, and costs were estimated by multiplying components of charges times hospital-specific ratios of costs to charges. During the study period, there were 247 ADEs among 207 admissions. After outliers and multiple episodes were excluded, there were 190 ADEs, of which 60 were preventable. In paired regression analyses adjusting for multiple factors, including severity, comorbidity, and case mix, the additional length of stay associated with an ADE was 2.2 days (P=.04), and the increase in cost associated with an ADE was $3244 (P=.04). For preventable ADEs, the increases were 4.6 days in length of stay (P=.03) and $5857 in total cost (P=.07). After adjusting for our sampling strategy, the estimated postevent costs attributable to an ADE were $2595 for all ADEs and $4685 for preventable ADEs. Based on these costs and data about the incidence of ADEs, we estimate that the annual costs attributable to all ADEs and preventable ADEs for a 700-bed teaching hospital are $5.6 million and $2.8 million, respectively. The substantial costs of ADEs to hospitals justify investment in efforts to prevent these events. Moreover, these estimates are conservative because they do not include the costs of injuries to patients or malpractice costs.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                17 December 2014
                : 11
                : 9-15
                [1 ]Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitari del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]Department of Statistics, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques, Barcelona, Spain
                [4 ]Department of Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Hospital Universitari del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
                [5 ]Heart Failure Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitari del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Olivia Ferrández, Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitari del Mar, Passeig Marítim 25–29, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain, Tel +34 93 248 3704, Fax +34 93 248 3256, Email 94007@ 123456hospitaldelmar.cat
                © 2015 Urbina et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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