+1 Recommend
1 collections

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on reporting of clinical studies, outcomes and safety in all therapeutic areas and surgical intervention areas. Sign up for email alerts here.

      34,006 Monthly downloads/views I 2.755 Impact Factor I 4.5 CiteScore I 1.0 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.598 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Effectiveness of twice daily azelastine nasal spray in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Azelastine nasal spray (Allergodil ®, Lastin ®, Afluon ®; Meda AB, Stockholm, Sweden) is a fast-acting, efficacious and well-tolerated H1-receptor antagonist for the treatment of rhinitis. In addition it also has mast-cell stabilizing and anti-inflammatory properties, reducing the concentration of leukotrienes, kinins and platelet activating factor in vitro and in vivo, as well as inflammatory cell migration in rhinitis patients. Well-controlled studies in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), perennial rhinitis (PR) or vasomotor rhinitis (VMR) confirm that azelastine nasal spray has a rapid onset of action, and improves nasal symptoms associated with rhinitis such as nasal congestion and post-nasal drip. Azelastine nasal spray is effective at the lower dose of 1 spray as well at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily, but with an improved tolerability profile compared to the 2-spray per nostril twice daily regimen. Compared with intranasal corticosteroids, azelastine nasal spray has a faster onset of action and a better safety profile, showing at least comparable efficacy with fluticasone propionate (Flonase ®; GSK, USA), and a superior efficacy to mometasone furoate (Nasonex ®; Schering Plough, USA). In combination with fluticasone propionate, azelastine nasal spray exhibits greater efficacy than either agent used alone, and this combination may provide benefit for patients with difficult to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis. In addition, azelastine nasal spray can be used on an as-needed basis without compromising clinical efficacy. Compared with oral antihistamines, azelastine nasal spray also demonstrates superior efficacy and a more rapid onset of action, and is effective even in patients who did not respond to previous oral antihistamine therapy. Unlike most oral antihistamines, azelastine nasal spray is effective in alleviating nasal congestion, a particularly bothersome symptom for rhinitis sufferers. Azelastine nasal spray is well tolerated in both adults and children with allergic rhinitis. Bitter taste which seems to be associated with incorrect dosing technique is the most common side effect reported by patients, but this problem can be minimized by correct dosing technique.

          Most cited references96

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Intranasal corticosteroids versus oral H1 receptor antagonists in allergic rhinitis: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

          To determine whether intranasal corticosteroids are superior to oral H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing intranasal corticosteroids with oral antihistamines. Randomised controlled trials conducted worldwide and published between 1966 and 1997. 2267 subjects with allergic rhinitis in 16 randomised controlled trials. Nasal blockage, nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal itch, postnasal drip, nasal discomfort, total nasal symptoms, nasal resistance, and eye symptoms and global ratings. Outcomes measured on different scales were combined to determine pooled odds ratios (categorical outcomes) or standardised mean differences (continuous outcomes). Assessment of heterogeneity between studies, and subgroup analyses of eye symptoms, were undertaken. Intranasal corticosteroids produced significantly greater relief than oral antihistamines of nasal blockage (standardised mean difference 0.63, 95% confidence interval - 0.73 to - 0.53), nasal discharge (-0.5, - 0.6 to - 0.4), sneezing (- 0.49, - 0.59 to - 0.39), nasal itch (- 0.38,- 0.49 to - 0.21), postnasal drip (- 0.24,- 0.42 to - 0.06), and total nasal symptoms (- 0.42,- 0.53 to - 0.32), and global ratings gave an odds ratio for deterioration of symptoms of 0.26 (0.08 to 0.8). There were no significant differences between treatments for nasal discomfort, nasal resistance, or eye symptoms. The effects on sneezing, total nasal symptoms, and eye symptoms were significantly heterogeneous between studies. Other combined outcomes were homogeneous between studies. Subgroup analysis of the outcome of eye symptoms suggested that the duration of assessment (averaged mean score over the study period versus mean score at end of study period) might have accounted for the heterogeneity. The results of this systematic review, together with data on safety and cost effectiveness, support the use of intranasal corticosteroids over oral antihistamines as first line treatment for allergic rhinitis.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Cysteinyl leukotrienes: multi-functional mediators in allergic rhinitis

            Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are a family of inflammatory lipid mediators synthesized from arachidonic acid by a variety of cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and macrophages. This article reviews the data for the role of CysLTs as multi-functional mediators in allergic rhinitis (AR). We review the evidence that: (1) CysLTs are released from inflammatory cells that participate in AR, (2) receptors for CysLTs are located in nasal tissue, (3) CysLTs are increased in patients with AR and are released following allergen exposure, (4) administration of CysLTs reproduces the symptoms of AR, (5) CysLTs play roles in the maturation, as well as tissue recruitment, of inflammatory cells, and (6) a complex inter-regulation between CysLTs and a variety of other inflammatory mediators exists.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Diagnosis and management of rhinitis: complete guidelines of the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters in Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology.

              This document contains complete guidelines for diagnosis and management of rhinitis developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters in Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the Joint Council on Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. The guidelines are comprehensive and begin with statements on clinical characteristics and diagnosis of different forms of rhinitis (allergic, non-allergic, occupational rhinitis, hormonal rhinitis [pregnancy and hypothyroidism], drug-induced rhinitis, rhinitis from food ingestion), and other conditions that may be confused with rhinitis. Recommendations on patient evaluation discuss appropriate use of history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing, as well as unproven or inappropriate techniques that should not be used. Parameters on management include use of environmental control measures, pharmacologic therapy including recently introduced therapies and allergen immunotherapy. Because of the risks to patients and society from sedation and performance impairment caused by first generation antihistamines, second generation antihistamines that reduce or eliminate these side effects should usually be considered before first generation antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The document emphasizes the importance of rhinitis management for comorbid conditions (asthma, sinusitis, otitis media). Guidelines are also presented on special considerations in patients subsets (children, the elderly, pregnancy, athletes and patients with rhinitis medicamentosa); and when consultation with an allergist-immunologist should be considered.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                October 2008
                October 2008
                : 4
                : 5
                : 1009-1022
                Medical University Vienna, ENT – Univ. Clinic, Vienna, Austria
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Friedrich Horak HNO – Univ. Klinik Wien, Waehringer Guertel 18–20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria Tel +43 1 404 003 336 Fax +43 1 789 76 76 Email friedrich.horak@ 123456vienna.at
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved

                seasonal allergic rhinitis,intranasal corticosteroids,azelastine nasal spray,rhinitis,oral antihistamines


                Comment on this article