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      Human adenovirus: Viral pathogen with increasing importance

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          The aim of this review is to describe the biology of human adenovirus (HAdV), the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and to present a practical update on its diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. There are two well-defined adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis clinical syndromes: epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF), which are caused by different HAdV serotypes. The exact incidence of adenoviral conjunctivitis is still poorly known. However, cases are more frequent during warmer months. The virus is endemic in the general population, and frequently causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients, especially the pediatric patients. Contagion is possible through direct contact or fomites, and the virus is extremely resistant to different physical and chemical agents. The clinical signs or symptoms of conjunctival infection are similar to any other conjunctivitis, with a higher incidence of pseudomembranes. In the cornea, adenoviral infection may lead to keratitis nummularis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, but its etiology can be confirmed using cell cultures, antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction or immunochromatography. Multiple treatments have been tried for this disease, but none of them seem to be completely effective. Prevention is the most reliable and recommended strategy to control this contagious infection.

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          Most cited references79

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          Rapid and quantitative detection of human adenovirus DNA by real-time PCR.

          Rapid diagnosis of human adenovirus (HAdV) infections was achieved by PCR in the recent years. However, conventional PCR has the risk of carry-over contamination due to open handling with its products, and results are only qualitative. Therefore, a quantitative "real-time" PCR with consensus primer and probe (dual fluorescence labelled, "TaqMan") sequences for a conserved region of the hexon gene was designed and evaluated. Real-time PCR detected all 51 HAdV prototypes. Sensitivity of the assay was
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            New adenovirus species found in a patient presenting with gastroenteritis.

            An unidentified agent was cultured in primary monkey cells at the Los Angeles County Public Health Department from each of five stool specimens submitted from an outbreak of gastroenteritis. Electron microscopy and an adenovirus-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed this agent to be an adenovirus. Since viral titers were too low, complete serotyping was not possible. Using the DNase-sequence-independent viral nucleic acid amplification method, we identified several nucleotide sequences with a high homology to human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-41) and simian adenovirus 1 (SAdV-1). However, using anti-SAdV-1 sera, it was determined that this virus was serologically different than SAdV-1. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that this new adenovirus was so divergent from the known human adenoviruses that it was not only a new type but also represented a new species (human adenovirus G). In a retrospective clinical study, this new virus was detected by PCR in one additional patient from a separate gastroenteritis outbreak. This study suggests that HAdV-52 may be one of many agents causing gastroenteritis of unknown etiology.
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              Computational analysis identifies human adenovirus type 55 as a re-emergent acute respiratory disease pathogen.

              Novel human adenoviruses (HAdVs) arise from genome recombination. Analysis of HAdV type 55 from an outbreak in China shows a hexon recombination between HAdV-B11 and HAdV-B14, resulting in a genome that is 97.4% HAdV-B14. Sporadic appearances as a re-emergent pathogen and misidentification as "HAdV-B11a" are due to this partial hexon.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 March 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 26-33
                [ 1 ] Faculty of Health, University of Witten/Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Straße 50, Witten, 58448, Germany
                [ 2 ] HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Institute of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics, Heusnerstr. 40, Wuppertal, 42283, Germany
                Author notes
                : 12 December 2013
                : 21 December 2013
                Review Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                human adenovirus (HAdV),serogroups,pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF),epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)


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