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      Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men

      New England Journal of Medicine

      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)

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          Most cited references 15

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          Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women.

           Frank Hu (2002)
          Higher consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in men, but limited data are available regarding women. To examine the association between fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of CHD in women. Dietary consumption and follow-up data from 84 688 female nurses enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, aged 34 to 59 years and free from cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1980, were compared from validated questionnaires completed in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994. Incident nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD deaths. During 16 years of follow-up, there were 1513 incident cases of CHD (484 CHD deaths and 1029 nonfatal myocardial infarctions). Compared with women who rarely ate fish (<1 per month), those with a higher intake of fish had a lower risk of CHD. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariable relative risks (RRs) of CHD were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.97) for fish consumption 1 to 3 times per month, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58-0.87) for once per week, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.55-0.88) for 2 to 4 times per week, and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50-0.89) for 5 or more times per week (P for trend =.001). Similarly, women with a higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids had a lower risk of CHD, with multivariable RRs of 1.0, 0.93, 0.78, 0.68, and 0.67 (P<.001 for trend) across quintiles of intake. For fish intake and omega-3 fatty acids, the inverse association appeared to be stronger for CHD deaths (multivariate RR for fish consumption 5 times per week, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.33-0.90] for CHD deaths vs 0.73 [0.51-1.04]) than for nonfatal myocardial infarction. Among women, higher consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a lower risk of CHD, particularly CHD deaths.
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            Preliminary criteria for the classification of the acute arthritis of primary gout

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              The management of gout.

               B T Emmerson (1996)
              We now have sufficient knowledge to be able to identify the factors contributing to hyperuricemia in most patients with gout. Some of these factors, such as obesity, a high-purine diet, regular alcohol consumption, and diuretic therapy, may be correctable. In patients with persistent hyperuricemia, regular medication should lower the serum urate concentration to an optimal level. The continuing challenge is to educate patients about correctable factors and the importance of regular medication and ensure their compliance so that attacks of gout do not recur.
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                Journal
                10.1056/NEJMoa035700
                15014182

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