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      Pharmacy- and community-based screenings for diabetes and cardiovascular conditions in high-risk individuals.

      Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA

      United States, Aged, Blood Glucose, Community Pharmacy Services, organization & administration, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, diagnosis, Dyslipidemias, Female, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Hypertension, Male, Mass Screening, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies

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          To assess a model to screen minority, elderly, and at-risk individuals for diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in pharmacy and non-health care settings. Multicenter, prospective, observational trial. 26 pharmacies and 4 non-health care settings. 888 individuals with one or more of the following risk factors: first-degree relative with diabetes, age 55 years or older, obesity, previous diagnosis of hypertension, or a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia. Measurement of plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and blood pressure; risk assessment using a risk factor tool; referral of participants with abnormalities to physicians. Adherence with follow-up, physician recommendations, and new diagnoses of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Pharmacists screened 888 participants in pharmacies and non-health care settings; 794 scored at least 10 on the risk factor tool and received further screenings. Of these, 81% were referred for follow-up for at least one abnormality: 15% glucose, 68% blood pressure, 66% total cholesterol, and 26% HDL-C. For those referred, the mean (+/- SD) fasting plasma glucose concentration was 179 +/- 87 mg/dL, and the random glucose concentration was 234 +/- 90 mg/dL. Of participants completing follow-up, 16% received one or more new diagnoses as follows: diabetes, 8; hypertension, 9; and dyslipidemia, 29. Therapy changed for 42% of participants. Participants who were elderly, of African American and Hispanic race/ethnicity, or those with elevated cholesterol values were at significantly greater risk for elevated glucose levels. Screenings in community pharmacy settings had improved follow-up rates with physicians compared with screenings conducted in non-health care settings. Pharmacists identified individuals with elevated glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure values through community-based screenings. Pharmacists also identified individuals who could benefit from further control of previously diagnosed hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

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