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      Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics

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          Abstract

          With the continued interest in the role of the gut microbiota in health, attention has now turned to how to harness the microbiota for the benefit of the host. This Consensus Statement outlines the definition and scope of the term 'prebiotic' as determined by an expert panel convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics in December 2016.

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          Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics.

          Prebiotics are non-digestible (by the host) food ingredients that have a beneficial effect through their selective metabolism in the intestinal tract. Key to this is the specificity of microbial changes. The present paper reviews the concept in terms of three criteria: (a) resistance to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and gastrointestinal absorption; (b) fermentation by intestinal microflora; (c) selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of intestinal bacteria associated with health and wellbeing. The conclusion is that prebiotics that currently fulfil these three criteria are fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose, although promise does exist with several other dietary carbohydrates. Given the range of food vehicles that may be fortified by prebiotics, their ability to confer positive microflora changes and the health aspects that may accrue, it is important that robust technologies to assay functionality are used. This would include a molecular-based approach to determine flora changes. The future use of prebiotics may allow species-level changes in the microbiota, an extrapolation into genera other than the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and allow preferential use in disease-prone areas of the body.
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            Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

            The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.
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              Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal.

              We have previously shown that gut microbial fermentation of prebiotics promotes satiety and lowers hunger and energy intake in humans. In rodents, these effects are associated with an increase in plasma gut peptide concentrations, which are involved in appetite regulation and glucose homeostasis. Our aim was to examine the effects of prebiotic supplementation on satiety and related hormones during a test meal for human volunteers by using a noninvasive micromethod for blood sampling to measure plasma gut peptide concentrations. This study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 10 healthy adults (5 men and 5 women) were randomly assigned to groups that received either 16 g prebiotics/d or 16 g dextrin maltose/d for 2 wk. Meal tolerance tests were performed in the morning to measure the following: hydrogen breath test, satiety, glucose homeostasis, and related hormone response. We show that the prebiotic treatment increased breath-hydrogen excretion (a marker of gut microbiota fermentation) by approximately 3-fold and lowered hunger rates. Prebiotics increased plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY concentrations, whereas postprandial plasma glucose responses decreased after the standardized meal. The areas under the curve for plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and breath-hydrogen excretion measured after the meal (0-60 min) were significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P = 0.007). The glucose response was inversely correlated with the breath-hydrogen excretion areas under the curve (0-180 min; r = -0.73, P = 0.02). Prebiotic supplementation was associated with an increase in plasma gut peptide concentrations (glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY), which may contribute in part to changes in appetite sensation and glucose excursion responses after a meal in healthy subjects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
                Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5045
                1759-5053
                June 14 2017
                June 14 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrgastro.2017.75
                28611480
                © 2017

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