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      Dominance of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype BEB6 in red deer ( Cervus elaphus) and Siberian roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus) in China and a brief literature review Translated title: Dominance du génotype BEB6 d' Enterocytozoon bieneusi chez le cerf élaphe ( Cervus elaphus) et le chevreuil de Sibérie ( Capreolus pygargus) en Chine et une brève revue de la littérature

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Genotyping, ITS region, Red deer, Siberian roe deer, Zoonotic

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          Abstract

          Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans and is also found in a wide range of animals. It is considered to be an important but neglected zoonotic pathogen. With the development of deer bred in captivity, the number of deer has been increasing in recent years in China and there are more people involved in this work. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotypes of E.bieneusi in red deer ( Cervuselaphus) and Siberian roe deer ( Capreoluspygargus), and to assess their potential zoonotic transmission. A total of 122 fecal specimens were collected from 104 red deer and 18 roe deer from three deer farms in Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, China. Enterocytozoonbieneusi was detected and genotyped by PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. The average infection rate was 8.2% (10/122), with 7.7% (8/104) for red deer and 11.1% (2/18) for roe deer. Two genotypes were identified: a known genotype BEB6 (n = 9) and a novel genotype named HLJD-VI (n = 1). This is the first report of E.bieneusi infection in Siberian roe deer. The fact that genotype BEB6 was detected previously in one human case of microsporidiosis, and that genotype HLJD-VI fell into zoonotic group 1, suggest the possibility of transmission to humans. A brief review of E.bieneusi genotypes in deer worldwide shows that 40 genotypes have been found in seven deer species, with genotype BEB6 being predominant.

          Translated abstract

          Enterocytozoonbieneusi est l'espèce de microsporidie la plus fréquemment diagnostiquée chez l'homme et se retrouve également chez un large éventail d'animaux. Elle est considérée comme un pathogène zoonotique important mais négligé. Avec le développement de l'élevage de cerfs en captivité, le nombre de cerfs a augmenté ces dernières années en Chine et il y a plus de gens impliqués dans ce travail. Les objectifs de cette étude étaient de déterminer la prévalence et les génotypes d' E.bieneusi chez le cerf élaphe ( Cervuselaphus) et le chevreuil de Sibérie ( Capreoluspygargus) et d'évaluer leur potentiel de transmission zoonotique. Au total, 122 spécimens de fèces ont été prélevés de 104 cerfs et 18 chevreuils de trois élevages de cerfs dans les provinces du Heilongjiang et du Jilin, en Chine. Enterocytozoonbieneusi a été détecté et génotypé par PCR et séquençage de la région de l'ITS du gène de l'ARNr. Le taux moyen d'infection était de 8,2 % (10/122), avec 7,7 % (8/104) pour le cerf et 11,1 % (2/18) pour le chevreuil. Deux génotypes ont été identifiés: un génotype connu, BEB6 (n = 9) et un nouveau génotype appelé HLJD-VI (n = 1). Ceci est le premier rapport d'infection par E.bieneusi chez le chevreuil sibérien. Le fait que le génotype BEB6 ait été détecté précédemment dans un cas humain de microsporidiose et que le génotype HLJD-VI appartiennent au groupe zoonotique 1 suggère la possibilité d'une transmission à l'homme. Une brève revue des génotypes d' E.bieneusi chez les cerfs dans le monde montre que 40 génotypes ont été trouvés chez sept espèces de cerfs, le génotype BEB6 étant prédominant.

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          Microsporidiosis: Enterocytozoon bieneusi in domesticated and wild animals.

          Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect all major animal groups. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most commonly identified Microsporidia in humans and has also been reported worldwide in animals with importance in veterinary medicine (e.g., cats, dogs, horses, cattle and pigs). The identification of E. bieneusi in animals has raised the question of the importance of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen, and the implications of the infection with this pathogen in infected animals. Considerable genetic diversity within E. bieneusi has been found with over 90 genotypes identified based on the ITS nucleotide sequence of E. bieneusi spores recovered from the feces of infected humans and animals. Both host-adapted E. bieneusi genotypes with narrow host ranges and potentially zoonotic genotypes with wide host specificity have been identified. The information presented in this review should be useful in understanding the taxonomy, epidemiology, zoonotic potential, and importance in public health of E. bieneusi. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.
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            Molecular Surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by Genotyping and Subtyping Parasites in Wastewater

             Na Li,  Lihua Xiao,  Lin Wang (2012)
            Background Despite their wide occurrence, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are considered neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. The epidemiology of these diseases and microsporidiosis in humans in developing countries is poorly understood. The high concentration of pathogens in raw sewage makes the characterization of the transmission of these pathogens simple through the genotype and subtype analysis of a small number of samples. Methodology/Principal Findings The distribution of genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in 386 samples of combined sewer systems from Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan and the sewer system in Qingdao in China was determined using PCR-sequencing tools. Eimeria spp. were also genotyped to assess the contribution of domestic animals to Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi in wastewater. The high occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. (56.2%), G. duodenalis (82.6%), E. bieneusi (87.6%), and Eimeria/Cyclospora (80.3%) made the source attribution possible. As expected, several human-pathogenic species/genotypes, including Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage A-II, and E. bieneusi genotype D, were the dominant parasites in wastewater. In addition to humans, the common presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. from rodents indicated that rodents might have contributed to the occurrence of E. bieneusi genotype D in samples. Likewise, the finding of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium baileyi from birds indicated that C. meleagridis might be of both human and bird origins. Conclusions/Significance The distribution of Cryptosporidium species, G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes, and E. bieneusi genotypes in urban wastewater indicates that anthroponotic transmission appeared to be important in epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis in the study areas. The finding of different distributions of subtypes between Shanghai and Wuhan was indicative of possible differences in the source of C. hominis among different areas in China.
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              Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

              A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2017
                21 December 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                Affiliations
                Department of Parasitology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 PR China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: liuaiqin1128@ 123456126.com
                Article
                parasite170096 10.1051/parasite/2017056
                10.1051/parasite/2017056
                5739546
                29267159
                © W. Zhao et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Article

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