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      Wound infection by Pantoea agglomerans after penetrating plant injury

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      Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
      Scientific Scholar

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          Abstract

          Pantoea agglomerans is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium that has been linked to skin and joint infections secondary to plant injuries. Herein we report a 58-year-old woman who presented with 2 erythematous nodules with purulent discharge on the anterior aspect of the right leg that developed after a penetrating plant injury. The patient was initially treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cloxacillin and clindamycin without improvement. P. agglomerans was isolated from both exudate and skin biopsy cultures. Healing of the lesions was achieved after the spontaneous release of a retained plant fragment and treatment with cotrimoxazole. Identification of P. agglomerans in persistent exudative lesions should alert the clinician regarding a possible previous plant injury and retained vegetal fragments. Conventional antibiotic treatment and the extraction of retained foreign bodies usually lead to complete resolution.

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          Most cited references10

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          Pantoea agglomerans, a plant pathogen causing human disease.

          We present 53 pediatric cases of Pantoea agglomerans infections cultured from normally sterile sites in patients seen at a children's hospital over 6 years. Isolates included 23 from the bloodstream, 14 from abscesses, 10 from joints/bones, 4 from the urinary tract, and 1 each from the peritoneum and the thorax. P. agglomerans was most associated with penetrating trauma by vegetative material and catheter-related bacteremia.
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            Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

            Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with P. agglomerans, others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with P. agglomerans is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by Pantoea agglomerans in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus). P. agglomerans strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. Pantoea agglomerans usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental plant called Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata), and a grass called onion couch (Arrhenatherum elatius). Some plant-pathogenic strains of P. agglomerans are tumourigenic, inducing gall formation on table beet, an ornamental plant gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), wisteria, Douglas-fir and cranberry. Recently, a Pantoea species closely related to P. agglomerans has been identified as a cause of bacterial blight disease in the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii cultivated in China. The genetically governed determinants of plant pathogenicity in Pantoea agglomerans include such mechanisms as the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) system, phytohormones, the quorum-sensing (QS) feedback system and type III secretion system (T3SS) injecting the effector proteins into the cytosol of a plant cell.
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              Pantoea agglomerans as a cause of septic arthritis after palm tree thorn injury; case report and literature review.

              We report the case of a 14 year old healthy boy, who was admitted six weeks after being injured by a palm tree thorn, with limping caused by pain and swelling in his right knee. An ultrasound examination revealed a foreign body in the posterior lateral aspect of the right knee. Pantoea agglomerans was identified in the synovial fluid. The patient underwent two arthrotomies and was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate intravenously for three weeks. The postoperative course was uneventful, and joint function returned to normal. A review of the literature between 1953 and 2002 revealed that bacterial growth after plant thorn injuries is reported infrequently. Yet when reported, Pantoea agglomearns is the most common organism found. Therefore, it must be considered and suspected in "aseptic" cases of arthritis, when there is a history of a plant thorn injury. We also emphasise the efficacy of ultrasound examination in these cases to identify the presence and location of a plant thorn.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
                IJDVL
                Scientific Scholar
                0378-6323
                2021
                February 24 2021
                : 0
                : 1-3
                Article
                10.25259/IJDVL_1069_19
                c2b08dde-d5f9-4499-b88b-b51815d45cac
                © 2021

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