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      Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s.

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          Abstract

          Pyrethroid-impregnated bednets are playing an increasing role for combating malaria, especially in stable malaria areas. More than 90% of the current annual malaria incidence (c. 500 million clinical cases with up to 2 million deaths) is in Africa where the major vector is Anopheles gambiae s.s. As pyrethroid resistance has been reported in this mosquito, reliable and simple techniques are urgently needed to characterize and monitor this resistance in the field. In insects, an important mechanism of pyrethroid resistance is due to a modification of the voltage-gated sodium channel protein recently shown to be associated with mutations of the para-type sodium channel gene. We demonstrate here that one of these mutations is present in certain strains of pyrethroid resistant A. gambiae s.s. and describe a PCR-based diagnostic test allowing its detection in the genome of single mosquitoes. Using this test, we found this mutation in six out of seven field samples from West Africa, its frequency being closely correlated with survival to pyrethroid exposure. This diagnostic test should bring major improvement for field monitoring of pyrethroid resistance, within the framework of malaria control programmes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Insect Molecular Biology
          Insect Mol Biol
          Wiley
          0962-1075
          1365-2583
          May 1998
          May 1998
          : 7
          : 2
          : 179-184
          Article
          10.1046/j.1365-2583.1998.72062.x
          9535162
          © 1998

          http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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