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      The Safety and Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Bilateral Dual Transversus Abdominis Plane (BD-TAP) Block in ERAS Program of Laparoscopic Hepatectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Blinded, Clinical Study

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          Postoperative pain management for patients undergoing hepatic resection is still a challenge due to the risk of perioperative liver dysfunction. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a promising regional analgesic technique. However, the correct guidelines regarding the dose and regimen of local anesthetics in patients undergoing hepatic resection have yet to be established completely. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided BD-TAP block with a large dose of ropivacaine in laparoscopic hepatectomy.

          Patients and Methods

          This prospective, blinded, randomized, controlled study was conducted with 50 patients who were scheduled for selective laparoscopic hepatectomy. Patients who received a BD-TAP block (3 mg/kg of ropivacaine diluted to 60 mL) with general anesthesia were categorized into the BD-TAP block group (n = 25), and those who received general anesthesia were categorized into the control group (n = 25). The primary outcomes were consumption of sufentanil within 48 hours post-operation and plasma ropivacaine concentration. The secondary outcomes were the severity of pain (at rest and upon coughing), nausea and/or vomiting, and quality of recovery.


          Compared with the control group, the patients in BD-TAP block group had a significant reduction of postoperative sufentanil consumption at 2 hours ( P = 0.019), 24 hours ( P = 0.001), and 48 hours ( P = 0.001), and the visual analog scale (VAS) scores on coughing were significantly lower at postoperative 2 hours ( P = 0.004). There were no statistically significant differences in postoperative nausea and/or vomiting, flatus, catheter removal, off-bed activity, liver function, or postoperative hospital stay. The mean peak total ropivacaine concentration was 1,067.85 ng/mL, which occurred 1 hour after administering the block, and mean free ropivacaine concentration was 52.32 ng/mL. The highest individual peak plasma concentration was 2,360.90 ng/mL at 45 min postinjection, and the free ropivacaine concentration was 139.29 ng/mL.


          Ultrasound-guided BD-TAP block provides effective postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic hepatectomy. This study also confirms that ultrasound-guided BD-TAP blocks with 3 mg/kg ropivacaine during laparoscopic hepatectomy almost never results in the plasma ropivacaine concentrations associated with neurotoxicity.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting.

           Tong Gan (2006)
          Knowledge of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk factors allows anesthesiologists to optimize the use of prophylactic regimens. Modern PONV risk research began in the 1990s with publication of studies using logistic regression analysis to simultaneously identify multiple independent PONV predictors and publication of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. This literature shows that female gender post-puberty, nonsmoking status, history of PONV or motion sickness, childhood after infancy and younger adulthood, increasing duration of surgery, and use of volatile anesthetics, nitrous oxide, large-dose neostigmine, or intraoperative or postoperative opioids are well established PONV risk factors. Possible risk factors include history of migraine, history of PONV or motion sickness in a child's parent or sibling, better ASA physical status, intense preoperative anxiety, certain ethnicities or surgery types, decreased perioperative fluids, crystalloid versus colloid administration, increasing duration of anesthesia, general versus regional anesthesia or sedation, balanced versus total IV anesthesia, and use of longer-acting versus shorter-acting opioids. Early-phase menstruation, obesity and lack of supplemental oxygen are disproved risk factors. Current risk scoring systems have approximately 55%-80% accuracy in predicting which patient groups will suffer PONV. Further research examining genetic and under-investigated clinical patient characteristics as potential risk factors, and involving outpatients and children, should improve predictive systems.
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            The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

            The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. Fifty women undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomized to undergo TAP block with ropivacaine (n = 25) versus placebo (n = 25), in addition to standard postoperative analgesia comprising patient-controlled IV morphine analgesia and regular diclofenac and acetaminophen. All patients received a standard spinal anesthetic, and at the end of surgery, a bilateral TAP block was performed using 1.5 mg/kg ropivacaine (to a maximal dose of 150 mg) or saline on each side. Each patient was assessed postoperatively by a blinded investigator: in the postanesthesia care unit and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h postoperatively. The TAP block with ropivacaine compared with placebo reduced postoperative visual analog scale pain scores. Mean (+/- sd) total morphine requirements in the first 48 postoperative hours were also reduced (66 +/- 26 vs 18 +/- 14 mg, P < 0.001), as was the 12-h interval morphine consumption up to 36 h postoperatively. The incidence of sedation was reduced in patients undergoing TAP blockade. There were no complications attributable to the TAP block. The TAP block, as a component of a multimodal analgesic regimen, provided superior analgesia when compared with placebo block up to 48 postoperative hours after elective cesarean delivery.
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              Central nervous and cardiovascular effects of i.v. infusions of ropivacaine, bupivacaine and placebo in volunteers.

              We have compared the incidence of CNS symptoms and changes in echocardiography and electrophysiology during i.v. infusions of ropivacaine, bupivacaine and placebo. Acute tolerance of i.v. infusion of 10 mg min-1 was studied in a crossover, randomized, double-blind study in 12 volunteers previously acquainted with the CNS effects of lignocaine. The maximum tolerated dose for CNS symptoms was higher after ropivacaine in nine of 12 subjects and higher after bupivacaine in three subjects. The 95% confidence limits for the difference in mean dose between ropivacaine and bupivacaine were -30 and 7 mg. The maximum tolerated unbound arterial plasma concentration was twice as high after ropivacaine (P < 0.001). Muscular twitching occurred more frequently after bupivacaine (P < 0.05). The time to disappearance of all symptoms was shorter after ropivacaine (P < 0.05). A threshold for CNS toxicity was apparent at a mean free plasma concentration of approximately 0.6 mg litre-1 for ropivacaine and 0.3 mg litre-1 for bupivacaine. Bupivacaine increased QRS width during sinus rhythm compared with placebo (P < 0.001) and ropivacaine (P < 0.01). Bupivacaine reduced both left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared with placebo (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), while ropivacaine reduced only systolic function (P < 0.01).

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                21 July 2020
                : 14
                : 2889-2898
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xin Yu Department of Anesthesiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University , 3 Qingchun Road East, Jianggan District, Hangzhou310016, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 13588708514Fax +86 0571-86006662 Email xinxin_yu@zju.edu.cn
                © 2020 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 24, Pages: 10
                Funded by: Medicine and Health Science and Technology Project of Zhejiang Province, China
                This study was supported by the Medicine and Health Science and Technology Project of Zhejiang Province, China (No. 2018277726).
                Clinical Trial Report


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