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      Delayed release pancrelipase for treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency associated with chronic pancreatitis

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          Abstract

          Pancreatic enzyme supplements (PES) are used in chronic pancreatitis (CP) for correction of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) as well as pain and malnutrition. The use of porcine pancreatic enzymes for the correction of exocrine insufficiency is governed by the pathophysiology of the disease as well as pharmacologic properties of PES. Variability in bioequivalence of PES has been noted on in vitro and in vivo testing and has been attributed to the differences in enteric coating and the degree of micro-encapsulation. As a step towards standardizing pancreatic enzyme preparations, the Food and Drug Administration now requires the manufacturers of PES to obtain approval of marketed formulations by April 2010. In patients with treatment failure, apart from evaluating drug and dietary interactions and compliance, physicians should keep in mind that patients may benefit from switching to a different formulation. The choice of PES (enteric coated versus non-enteric coated) and the need for acid suppression should be individualized. There is no current standard test for evaluating adequacy of therapy in CP patients and studies have shown that optimization of therapy based on symptoms may be inadequate. Goals of therapy based on overall patient presentation and specific laboratory tests rather than mere correction of steatorrhea are needed.

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          Most cited references 120

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          Faecal elastase 1: a novel, highly sensitive, and specific tubeless pancreatic function test.

          Indirect pancreatic function tests available today are unreliable for clinical practice in early chronic pancreatitis due to their low sensitivity in mild and moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and practicability of faecal elastase 1 determination in patients with mild, moderate, and severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency categorised according to the secretin-caerulein test as "gold standard'. Faecal and duodenal elastase 1 concentration (commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)), faecal chymotrypsin activity, faecal fat analysis, and the secretin-caerulein test were performed on 44 patients with mild (n = 8), moderate (n = 14), and severe (n = 22) exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and 35 patients with gastrointestinal diseases of non-pancreatic origin. Fifty healthy volunteers were studied as normal controls. Morphological examinations were carried out to definitely confirm or exclude chronic pancreatitis. With a cut off of 200 micrograms elastase 1/g stool the sensitivity was 63% for mild, 100% for moderate, 100% for severe, and 93% for all patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and specificity was 93%. Values for chymotrypsin were 64% (sensitivity) and 89% (specificity). Significant (p < 0.001) correlations were found for faecal and duodenal elastase with duodenal lipase, amylase, trypsin, volume, and bicarbonate output. Individual day to day variations of faecal elastase 1 concentrations were very low (mean CV = 15%) and sample storage at room temperature is possible for at least one week. Faecal elastase 1 determination proved to be a highly sensitive and specific tubeless pancreatic function test.
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            The different courses of early- and late-onset idiopathic and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

            Compared with alcoholic pancreatitis, little is known about the natural history of idiopathic pancreatitis. Two hundred forty-nine patients with alcoholic pancreatitis and 66 patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis seen at our institution between 1976 and 1982 were investigated. Records were analyzed retrospectively from the onset of symptomatic disease, and patients were followed up prospectively until 1985. Patients with early-onset (n = 25) and late-onset (n = 41) idiopathic chronic pancreatitis had a median age at onset of symptoms of 19 and 56 years, respectively. The gender distribution was nearly equal in idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, but 72% of patients with alcoholic pancreatitis were men (P = 0.001 vs. idiopathic). In early-onset idiopathic pancreatitis, calcification and exocrine and endocrine insufficiency developed more slowly than in late-onset idiopathic and alcoholic pancreatitis (P = 0.03). However, in early idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, pain frequently occurred initially (P = 0.003 vs. late and alcoholic) and was more severe (P = 0.04 vs. late and alcoholic). In late-onset idiopathic pancreatitis, pain was absent in nearly 50% of patients. There are two distinct forms of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Patients with early-onset pancreatitis have initially and thereafter a long course of severe pain but slowly develop morphological and functional pancreatic damage, whereas patients with late-onset pancreatitis have a mild and often a painless course. Both forms differ from alcoholic pancreatitis in their equal gender distribution and a much slower rate of calcification.
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              Relations between pancreatic enzyme ouputs and malabsorption in severe pancreatic insufficiency.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2009
                2009
                12 July 2009
                : 5
                : 507-520
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Department of Medicine
                [2 ] Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dana Andersen Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA Tel +1 410 550 2821 Email dander54@ 123456jhmi.edu
                Article
                tcrm-5-507
                2710383
                19707261
                © 2009 Krishnamurty et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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