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      siRNA-loaded poly(histidine-arginine) 6-modified chitosan nanoparticle with enhanced cell-penetrating and endosomal escape capacities for suppressing breast tumor metastasis


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          An ideal carrier that delivers small interfering RNA (siRNA) should be designed based on two criteria: cellular-mediated internalization and endosomal escape. Poly(histidine-arginine) 6(H6R6) peptide was introduced into chitosan (CS) to create a new CS derivative for siRNA delivery, 6-polyarginine (R6) as cell-penetrating peptides facilitated nanoparticle cellular internalization has been proved in our previous research, and 6-polyhistidine (H6) mediated the nanoparticle endosome escape resulted in the siRNA rapid releasing into tumor cytoplasm. H6R6-modified CS nanoparticles showed higher transfection efficiency and better endosomal escape capacity compared to ungroomed CS nanoparticle in vitro. Noticeably, H6R6-modified CS nanoparticles effectively inhibited tumor cell growth and metastases in vivo and significantly improved survival ratio. Therefore, we concluded that H6R6-modified CS copolymer can act as an ideal carrier for siRNA delivery and as a promising candidate in breast cancer therapy.

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          Progress and problems with the use of suicide genes for targeted cancer therapy

          Among various gene therapy methods for cancer, suicide gene therapy attracts a special attention because it allows selective conversion of non-toxic compounds into cytotoxic drugs inside cancer cells. As a result, therapeutic index can be increased significantly by introducing high concentrations of cytotoxic molecules to the tumor environment while minimizing impact on normal tissues. Despite significant success at the preclinical level, no cancer suicide gene therapy protocol has delivered the desirable clinical significance yet. This review gives a critical look at the six main enzyme/prodrug systems that are used in suicide gene therapy of cancer and familiarizes readers with the state-of-the-art research and practices in this field. For each enzyme/prodrug system, the mechanisms of action, protein engineering strategies to enhance enzyme stability/affinity and chemical modification techniques to increase prodrug kinetics and potency are discussed. In each category, major clinical trials that have been performed in the past decade with each enzyme/prodrug system are discussed to highlight the progress to date. Finally, shortcomings are underlined and areas that need improvement in order to produce clinical significance are delineated.
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            Inhibition of metastasis and growth of breast cancer by pH-sensitive poly (β-amino ester) nanoparticles co-delivering two siRNA and paclitaxel.

            Breast cancer is the most vicious killer for women's health, while metastasis is the main culprit, which leads to failure of treatment by increasing relapse rate. In this work, a new complexes nanoparticles loading two siRNA (Snail siRNA (siSna) and Twist siRNA (siTwi)) and paclitaxel (PTX) were designed and constructed using two new amphiphilic polymer, polyethyleneimine-block-poly[(1,4-butanediol)-diacrylate-β-5-hydroxyamylamine] (PEI-PDHA) and polyethylene glycol-block-poly[(1,4-butanediol)-diacrylate-β-5-hydroxyamylamine] (PEG-PDHA) by self-assembly. The experimental results showed that in the 4T1 tumor-bearing mice models, PEI-PDHA/PEG-PDHA/PTX/siSna/siTwi) complex nanoparticles (PPSTs) raised the accumulation and retention of both PTX and siRNA in tumor after administrated intravenously, resulted in the strong inhibition of the tumor growth and metastasis simultaneously. It was found that co-delivery of siSna and siTwi had more significant anti-metastasis effect than delivering a single siRNA, as a result of simultaneously inhibiting the motility of cancer cells and degradation of ECM. Therefore, PPSTs could be a promising co-delivery vector for effective therapy of metastatic breast cancer.
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              Intracellular delivery of quantum dots mediated by a histidine- and arginine-rich HR9 cell-penetrating peptide through the direct membrane translocation mechanism.

              Functional peptides that transfer biomaterials, such as semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), into cells in biomaterial research have been developed in recent years. Delivery of QDs conjugated with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) into cells by the endocytic pathway was problematic in biomedical applications because of lysosomal trapping. Here, we demonstrate that histidine- and arginine-rich CPPs (HR9 peptides) stably and noncovalently combined with QDs are able to enter into cells in an extremely short period (4 min). Interrupting both F-actin polymerization and active transport did not inhibit the entry of HR9/QD complexes into cells, indicating that HR9 penetrates cell membrane directly. Subcellular colocalization studies indicated that QDs delivered by HR9 stay in cytosol without any organelle capture. Dimethyl sulphoxide, ethanol and oleic acid, but not pyrenebutyrate, enhanced HR9-mediated intracellular delivery of QDs by promoting the direct membrane translocation pathway. HR9 and HR9/QDs were not cytotoxic. These findings suggest that HR9 could be an efficient carrier to deliver drugs without interfering with their therapeutic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                19 April 2017
                : 12
                : 3221-3234
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing
                [2 ]Yanbian University Hospital, Jilin, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhonggao Gao; Wei Huang, State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 10 6302 8096, Email zggao@ 123456imm.ac.cn ; huangwei@ 123456imm.ac.cn
                © 2017 Sun et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Molecular medicine
                poly(histidine-arginine)6-peptide-modified chitosan nanoparticle,cell-penetrating peptides,endosome/lysosome escape,gene delivery,breast carcinoma


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