An ideal carrier that delivers small interfering RNA (siRNA) should be designed based on two criteria: cellular-mediated internalization and endosomal escape. Poly(histidine-arginine) 6(H6R6) peptide was introduced into chitosan (CS) to create a new CS derivative for siRNA delivery, 6-polyarginine (R6) as cell-penetrating peptides facilitated nanoparticle cellular internalization has been proved in our previous research, and 6-polyhistidine (H6) mediated the nanoparticle endosome escape resulted in the siRNA rapid releasing into tumor cytoplasm. H6R6-modified CS nanoparticles showed higher transfection efficiency and better endosomal escape capacity compared to ungroomed CS nanoparticle in vitro. Noticeably, H6R6-modified CS nanoparticles effectively inhibited tumor cell growth and metastases in vivo and significantly improved survival ratio. Therefore, we concluded that H6R6-modified CS copolymer can act as an ideal carrier for siRNA delivery and as a promising candidate in breast cancer therapy.