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      Chicken oviduct—the target tissue for growth hormone action: effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis and on the gene expression of some oviduct-specific proteins

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo effect of growth hormone (GH) on cell proliferation and apoptosis and on the gene expression of selected proteins in the chicken oviduct before sexual maturity (first oviposition). Ten-week-old Hy-Line Brown chickens were injected three times a week with 200 μg · kg -1 body weight of recombinant chicken GH (cGH) until 16 weeks of age. Control hens received 0.9 % NaCl with 0.05 % bovine serum albumin as a vehicle. Treatment with cGH increased ( P < 0.05) oviduct weight at 16 weeks of age, i.e. 1–2 weeks before onset of egg laying. The highest number of proliferating (determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] immunocytochemistry) and apoptotic (determined by TUNEL assay) cells in the oviduct was found in the mucosal epithelium, and the lowest in the stroma. Administration of cGH did not increase ( P > 0.05) the number of PCNA-positive cells but it decreased ( P < 0.01) the number of TUNEL-positive cells, thus increasing the proliferating-to-apoptotic cell ratio in the oviduct. Gene expression (determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction) of apoptosis-related caspase-2 in the magnum and caspase-3 in the magnum and isthmus and their activity (determined by fluorometric assay) in the magnum were attenuated ( P < 0.05) in cGH-treated hens. The gene expression of the magnum-specific ovalbumin and the shell-gland-specific ovocalyxins 32 and 36 was increased ( P < 0.05) in cGH-treated chickens. In contrast, the expression of Bcl-2 and of caspases 8 and 9 was not affected by cGH in any of the oviductal segments. The results suggest that GH, via the orchestration of apoptosis and expression of some oviduct-specific proteins, participates in the development and activity of the chicken oviduct prior to the onset of egg laying.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Autocrine human growth hormone stimulates oncogenicity of endometrial carcinoma cells.

          Recent published data have demonstrated elevated levels of human GH (hGH) in endometriosis and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Herein, we demonstrate that autocrine production of hGH can enhance the in vitro and in vivo oncogenic potential of endometrial carcinoma cells. Forced expression of hGH in endometrial carcinoma cell lines RL95-2 and AN3 resulted in an increased total cell number through enhanced cell cycle progression and decreased apoptotic cell death. In addition, autocrine hGH expression in endometrial carcinoma cells promoted anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration/invasion in vitro. In a xenograft model of human endometrial carcinoma, autocrine hGH enhanced tumor size and progression. Changes in endometrial carcinoma cell gene expression stimulated by autocrine hGH was consistent with the altered in vitro and in vivo behavior. Functional antagonism of hGH in wild-type RL95-2 cells significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell survival, and anchorage-independent cell growth. These studies demonstrate a functional role for autocrine hGH in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma and indicate potential therapeutic relevance of hGH antagonism in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma.
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            Cloning of ovocalyxin-36, a novel chicken eggshell protein related to lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins, and plunc family proteins.

            The avian eggshell is a composite biomaterial composed of noncalcifying eggshell membranes and the overlying calcified shell matrix. The shell is deposited in a uterine fluid where the concentration of different protein species varies at different stages of its formation. The role of avian eggshell proteins during shell formation remains poorly understood, and we have sought to identify and characterize the individual components in order to gain insight into their function during elaboration of the eggshell. In this study, we have used direct sequencing, immunochemistry, expression screening, and EST data base mining to clone and characterize a 1995-bp full-length cDNA sequence corresponding to a novel chicken eggshell protein that we have named Ovocalyxin-36 (OCX-36). Ovocalyxin-36 protein was only detected in the regions of the oviduct where egg-shell formation takes place; uterine OCX-36 message was strongly up-regulated during eggshell calcification. OCX-36 localized to the calcified eggshell predominantly in the inner part of the shell, and to the shell membranes. BlastN data base searching indicates that there is no mammalian version of OCX-36; however, the protein sequence is 20-25% homologous to proteins associated with the innate immune response as follows: lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins, and Plunc family proteins. Moreover, the genomic organization of these proteins and OCX-36 appears to be highly conserved. These observations suggest that OCX-36 is a novel and specific chicken eggshell protein related to the superfamily of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins/bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins and Plunc proteins. OCX-36 may therefore participate in natural defense mechanisms that keep the egg free of pathogens.
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              Ovocalyxin-32, a novel chicken eggshell matrix protein. isolation, amino acid sequencing, cloning, and immunocytochemical localization.

              The eggshell is a highly ordered structure resulting from the deposition of calcium carbonate concomitantly with an organic matrix upon the eggshell membranes. Mineralization takes place in an acellular uterine fluid, which contains the ionic and matrix precursors of the eggshell. We have identified a novel 32-kDa protein, ovocalyxin-32, which is expressed at high levels in the uterine and isthmus regions of the oviduct, and concentrated in the eggshell. Sequencing of peptides derived from the purified protein allowed expressed sequence tag sequences to be identified that were assembled to yield a full-length composite sequence whose conceptual translation product contained the complete amino acid sequence of ovocalyxin-32. Data base searches revealed that ovocalyxin-32 has limited identity (32%) to two unrelated proteins: latexin, a carboxypeptidase inhibitor expressed in the rat cerebral cortex and mast cells, and a skin protein, which is encoded by a retinoic acid receptor-responsive gene, TIG1. High level expression of ovocalyxin-32 was limited to the isthmus and uterus tissue, where immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels demonstrated that ovocalyxin-32 is secreted by surface epithelial cells. In the eggshell, ovocalyxin-32 localizes to the outer palisade layer, the vertical crystal layer, and the cuticle of the eggshell, in agreement with its demonstration by Western blotting at high levels in the uterine fluid during the termination phase of eggshell formation. Ovocalyxin-32 is therefore identified as a novel protein synthesized in the distal oviduct where hen eggshell formation occurs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +48-12-6333824 , +48-12-6624107 , rzhrabia@cyf-kr.edu.pl , annahrabia@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Cell Tissue Res
                Cell Tissue Res
                Cell and Tissue Research
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0302-766X
                1432-0878
                18 April 2014
                18 April 2014
                2014
                : 357
                : 363-372
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Animal Physiology and Endocrinology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
                [ ]Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
                Article
                1860
                10.1007/s00441-014-1860-6
                4077250
                24744268
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                Categories
                Regular Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

                Molecular medicine

                growth hormone, proliferation, apoptosis, ovalbumin, ovocalyxin, oviduct, chicken

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