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      Three Novel Mutations in Japanese Patients with 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

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          Abstract

          Objective: This study analyzed the mutation of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) in 36 unrelated Japanese patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Methods: All the exons of the functional CYP21 gene (CYP21A2) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR direct sequencing. Results: Apparent gene deletions and conversions were present in 23.6% of the 72 CAH alleles, in which the most frequent mutation was the IVS2-13 A/C>G (27.8%), followed by I172N (26.3%), consistent with the frequencies reported for other countries. Previously described mutations were not present in three unrelated cases. Sequence analysis of the complete functional CYP21A2 gene revealed three, not yet described mutations that represent a common pseudogene sequence. These three putative novel mutations are located in exon 1 (M1I), in exon 5 (1210–1211insT), and in exon 3 (R124H). Conclusions: In this study, we have identified three putative novel mutations. It remains to be determined whether these three mutations are responsible for the significant number of as yet uncharacterized CAH patients in Japan.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

           P C White (2000)
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            CYP21 gene mutation analysis in 198 patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency in The Netherlands: six novel mutations and a specific cluster of four mutations.

            Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the frequencies of CYP21 mutations and to study genotype-phenotype correlation in a large population of Dutch 21-hydroxylase deficient patients. From 198 patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, 370 unrelated alleles were studied. Gene deletion/conversion was present in 118 of the 370 alleles (31.9%). The most frequent point mutations were I2G (28.1%) and I172N (12.4%). Clustering of pseudogene-derived mutations in exons 7 and 8 (V281L-F306 + 1nt-Q318X-R356W) on a single allele was found in seven unrelated alleles (1.9%). This cluster had been reported before in two other Dutch patients and in two patients in a study from New York, but not in other series worldwide. Six novel mutations were found: 995-996insA, 1123delC, G291R, S301Y, Y376X, and R483Q. Genotype-phenotype correlation (in 87 well documented patients) showed that 28 of 29 (97%) patients with two null mutations and 23 of 24 (96%) patients with mutation I2G (homozygous or heterozygous with a null mutation) had classic salt wasting. Patients with mutation I172N (homozygous or heterozygous with a null or I2G mutation) had salt wasting (2 of 17, 12%), simple virilizing (10 of 17, 59%), or nonclassic CAH (5 of 17, 29%). All six patients with mutation P30L, V281L, or P453S (homozygous or compound heterozygous) had nonclassic CAH. The frequency of CYP21 mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlation in 21-hydroxylase deficient patients in The Netherlands show in general high concordance with previous reports from other Western European countries. However, a cluster of four pseudogene-derived point mutations on exons 7 and 8 on a single allele, observed in almost 2% of the unrelated alleles, seems to be particular for the Dutch population and six novel CYP21 gene mutations were found.
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              Three novel mutations in CYP21 gene in Brazilian patients with the classical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to a founder effect.

              Three different new mutations were found after CYP21 gene sequencing in three unrelated patients with the classical form of the 21-hydroxylase deficiency. These mutations were also screened in their affected relatives. In one patient and her brother, both affected with the simple virilizing form and in their aunt, with the nonclassical form, an AG>GG transition was found in the acceptor site of intron 2. In another patient with the salt wasting form, we found a 1003 1004 insA, in exon 4, that altered the reading frame and created a stop codon in codon 297. In the third patient and his sister, we found a C>T transition in codon 408. This transition led to the substitution of arginine by cysteine (R408C) in a conserved region where arginine is conserved in at least four different species. These siblings with the R408C mutation, both affected with the salt wasting form, have the IVS2-13A/C>G mutation in the other allele, suggesting that the R408C should lead to complete impairment of enzymatic activity. To rule out the possibility of polymorphism, R408C was screened through allele specific PCR, and it was not found in 100 normal alleles. The screening of these three new mutations by allele-specific PCR or enzymatic restriction in 212 CAH patients disclosed their presence in 2.3% (9/387) of the alleles. All three new mutations were found in compound heterozygous state with previously known mutations. Microsatellite studies, using markers flanking CYP21 gene, revealed that each new mutation presents the same haplotype, suggesting a gene founder effect, similar to what was previously observed with the G424S mutation also described in our population. Although microconversion events are the main cause of mutations in the CYP21 gene, random mutations with a common origin can also be the cause of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                March 2004
                17 March 2004
                : 61
                : 3
                : 126-132
                Affiliations
                aClinical Research Institute, Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Disease, Kyoto National Hospital, Kyoto; bDepartment of Pediatrics, National Kagawa Children’s Hospital, Kagawa; cDivision of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shizuoka Children’s Hospital, Shizuoka; dDepartment of Pediatrics, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Amagasaki; eDepartment of Pediatrics, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, and fDepartment of Pediatrics, National Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan
                Article
                75587 Horm Res 2004;61:126–132
                10.1159/000075587
                14676460
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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