In patients with beta-thalassaemia major, frequent blood transfusions combined with desferrioxamine chelation therapy lead to an improved rate of survival. Endocrine disorders related to secondary haemosiderosis such as short stature, delayed puberty and hypogonadism are major problems in both adolescent and adult patients. A total of 32 patients with beta-thalassaemia major undergoing treatment at the Children's Hospital, University of Göttingen were examined. Fourteen of these were short in stature. Growth hormone (GH) secretion was investigated in 13 patients exhibiting either a short stature or reduced growth rate. The stimulated GH secretion of 10 patients in this subgroup lay within the normal range. Studies of their spontaneous GH secretion during the night revealed that these patients had a markedly reduced mean GH and reduced amplitudes in their GH peaks. Low insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels were seen in the growth-retarded thalassaemic patients. Eight were subjected to an IGF generation test and showed a strong increase in both IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels indicating intact IGF-I generation by the liver. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was found to be present in both the male and female patients with impaired sexual development. After priming with LH-releasing hormone (GnRH) per pump in 2 female and 5 male patients, no change in either their serum oestradiol or testosterone levels or in LH/FSH response to GnRH was observed suggesting that they were suffering from a severe pituitary gonadotropin insufficiency. Three male patients at the age of puberty but exhibiting short stature. low GH, low IGF-I and hypogonadism received low dose long-acting testosterone. After 3 12 months of therapy there was a marked growth spurt, higher nocturnal GH levels and an increase in both IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Reduced GH secretion and low IGF-I in thalassaemic patients are related to a neurosecretory dysfunction due to iron overload rather than to liver damage. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is caused by the selective loss of pituitary gonadotropin function. In patients with both GH deficiency and hypogonadism, low dose sexual steroid treatment should be considered either as an alternative or an additional treatment before starting GH therapy.