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      Physicochemical and surface properties of acrylic intraocular lenses and their clinical significance

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          Abstract

          To analyze and compare several commercially available acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with particular regard to their clinical significance, we examined the physicochemical and surface properties of four currently available acrylic IOLs using static water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The hydrophobic acrylic IOLs, ZA9003, and MA60BM, had contact angles ranging from 77.9° ± 0.65° to 84.4° ± 0.09°. The contact angles in the hydrophilic acrylic (970C) and heparin-surface-modified (HSM) hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (BioVue) were 61.8° ± 0.45° and 69.7° ± 0.76°, respectively. The roughness of the IOL optic surface differed depending on the type of IOL ( p < 0.001). The surface roughness of BioVue had the lowest value: 5.87 ± 1.26 nm. This suggests that the BioVue IOL may lead to reduced cellular adhesion compared to the unmodified IOLs. All IOLs including those composed of acrylic optic materials from different manufacturers showed distinct Raman spectra peaks. The glass transition temperatures (T g) for the hydrophobic acrylic IOLs were between 12.5 and 13.8 °C. These results suggest that the intraoperative and postoperative behavior of an IOL can be predicted. This information is also expected to contribute greatly to the industrial production of reliable biocompatible IOLs.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Dependence of the glass transition temperature on heating and cooling rate

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            Practice styles and preferences of ASCRS members--2003 survey.

             D Leaming (2004)
            A survey of the members of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) with a United States ZIP code was performed in July 2003. Approximately 15.5% (985) of the 6350 questionnaires were returned for analysis. Three main profile questions were used in the cross-tabulation: age of the respondent, geographic location, and volume of cataract surgery per month. The refractive surgical questions were cross-tabulated for the volume of laser in situ keratomileusis. Results of the survey were compared with those in previous surveys of ASCRS members.
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              Eradication of posterior capsule opacification: documentation of a marked decrease in Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rates noted in an analysis of 5416 pseudophakic human eyes obtained postmortem.

              (1) To report the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy rate (%) of eight rigid and foldable intraocular lens (IOL) designs in a series of 5416 pseudophakic human eyes obtained postmortem, accessioned in our center between January 1988 and January 2000. (2) To identify factors that are instrumental in reducing the incidence of posterior capsule opacification, (PCO, secondary cataract) and hence the need for Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. Comparative autopsy tissue analysis. A total of 5416 globes with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOLs) obtained postmortem received from Lions Eye Banks between 1988 and 2000. Miyake-Apple posterior photographic technique. Special reference was given to the presence or absence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy orifice on the posterior capsule of each eye. The Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rate (%) as of January 2000 was documented. In addition, the Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rate for each lens was plotted on a monthly basis for the same period, creating a computerized trend or "timeline" for each IOL style. Relatively high Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rates ranging from 20.3% to 33.4% were noted with four relatively older designs (high incidence of implantation between 1988 and the early 1990s). Four modern foldable IOLs manufactured from silicone and acrylic materials had significantly lower Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rates ranging from 0.9% (Alcon Acrysof) to 17.1%. The difference in Nd:YAG rates among the eight IOL designs was found to be significant (P < 0.0001, chi-square test). Comparing foldable versus rigid designs, the foldable IOLs were associated with a much lower Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rate (14.1% vs. 31.1%). By use of the six factors regarding surgical technique and IOL choice described in this article, we strongly believe that the overall incidence of PCO and hence the incidence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is now rapidly decreasing from rates as high as 50% in the 1980s to early 1990s. Surgical tools and IOLs are now available to bring these rates down to single digits. Careful application and use of these tools by surgeons can genuinely lead in the direction of virtual eradication of secondary cataract, the second most common cause of visual loss worldwide.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +82-62-230-7375 , gbjung@chosun.ac.kr
                Journal
                J Pharm Investig
                J Pharm Investig
                Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                2093-5552
                2093-6214
                27 March 2017
                27 March 2017
                2017
                : 47
                : 5
                : 453-460
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9475 8840, GRID grid.254187.d, Department of Physics Education, , Chosun University, ; 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu Gwangju, 61452 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 7818, GRID grid.289247.2, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, , Kyung Hee University, ; Seoul, 02447 Republic of Korea
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 7818, GRID grid.289247.2, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, , Kyung Hee University, ; 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu Seoul, 02447 Republic of Korea
                Article
                323
                10.1007/s40005-017-0323-y
                5625547
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology 2017

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