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      Towards the development of automated fed-batch cell culture processes at microscale

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          Aim: To investigate the impact of various feeding strategies on the growth and productivity of a GS-CHO cell line. Methods: Feed additions were conducted at fixed volumes or linked to a marker such as cell growth or metabolism and added as bolus or near-continuously using the automated feeding module of the micro-Matrix (Applikon). Results: The selected feeding regimens supported maximum viable cell densities of up to 1.9 × 10 7 cells ml −1 and final titers of up to 1.13 g l −1. Differences in growth and titer between feeding strategies were insignificant, with the exception of one feeding strategy. Conclusion: As the more complex feeding strategies did not create an advantage, the selection of a simple feeding strategy such as bolus or continuous addition of feed medium is preferred.


          Fed-batch is an easy and popular way to intensify cell cultivations. The time of addition and the volume that is added can be decisive in achieving optimal product titers. A micro-bioreactor has been used to investigate the effect of several feeding strategies on the growth and production kinetics of a GS-CHO cell line.

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          Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

          In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.
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            Considerations on the lactate consumption by CHO cells in the presence of galactose.

            A CHO cell line producing t-PA was cultured using glutamate and glucose or galactose to decrease the formation of metabolic end-products and therefore improving the process. In batch cultures using glutamate (6 mM) with glucose at two different levels (5 and 20 mM) or with glucose and galactose (5 and 20 mM, respectively) a remarkable difference in cell culture parameters was evidenced. For 20 mM glucose, a usual cell pattern was observed with lactate built-up in the medium. For 5 mM glucose, cell growth was arrested due to glucose depletion and only a limited use of the excreted lactate could be observed, not supporting cell growth sufficiently. However, when glucose 5 mM and galactose 20 mM were used together, cells consumed the glucose first and, interestingly, in a second phase they continued growing on galactose with the simultaneous consumption of the endogenous lactate. Under these conditions, cell growth was even improved with respect to growth on 20 mM glucose, used as a control. This metabolic behavior is further investigated by using metabolic flux analysis, suggesting that the lactate produced is not used in the oxidative metabolism through the TCA cycle. Metabolic fate of the lactate consumed is discussed.
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              Microbioreactor Systems for Accelerated Bioprocess Development.

              In recent years, microbioreactor (MBR) systems have evolved towards versatile bioprocess engineering tools. They provide a unique solution to combine higher experimental throughput with extensive bioprocess monitoring and control, which is indispensable to develop economically and ecologically competitive bioproduction processes. MBR systems are based either on down-scaled stirred tank reactors or on advanced shaken microtiter plate cultivation devices. Importantly, MBR systems make use of optical measurements for non-invasive, online monitoring of important process variables like biomass concentration, dissolved oxygen, pH, and fluorescence. The application range of MBR systems can be further increased by integration into liquid handling robots, enabling automatization and, thus standardization, of various handling and operation procedures. Finally, the tight integration of quantitative strain phenotyping with bioprocess development under industrially relevant conditions greatly increases the probability of finding the right combination of producer strain and bioprocess control strategy. This review will discuss the current state of the art in the field of MBR systems and we can readily conclude that their importance for industrial biotechnology will further increase in the near future.

                Author and article information

                Future Science Ltd (London, UK )
                18 September 2019
                November 2019
                : 67
                : 5
                : 238-241
                1The Advanced Centre for Biochemical Engineering, Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
                2Applikon-Biotechnology BV. Heertjeslaan 2, 2629JG, Delft, The Netherlands
                © 2019 Frank Baganz

                This work is licensed under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Unported License

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