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      Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer

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          ABSTRACT

          Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynecologic malignancy worldwide but accounts for the highest mortality rate among these cancers. A stepwise approach to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is vital to appropriate management of this disease process. An integrated approach with gynecologic oncologists as well as medical oncologists, pathologists, and radiologists is of paramount importance to improving outcomes. Surgical cytoreduction to R0 is the mainstay of treatment, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Genetic testing for gene mutations that affect treatment is the standard of care for all women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Nearly all women will have a recurrence, and the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer continues to be nuanced and requires extensive review of up to date modalities that balance efficacy with the patient’s quality of life. Maintenance therapy with poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors, bevacizumab, and/or drugs targeting homologous recombination deficiency is becoming more widely used in the treatment of ovarian cancer, and the advancement of immunotherapy is further revolutionizing treatment targets.

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          Most cited references128

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          Cancer statistics, 2020

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on population-based cancer occurrence. Incidence data (through 2016) were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data (through 2017) were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2020, 1,806,590 new cancer cases and 606,520 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. The cancer death rate rose until 1991, then fell continuously through 2017, resulting in an overall decline of 29% that translates into an estimated 2.9 million fewer cancer deaths than would have occurred if peak rates had persisted. This progress is driven by long-term declines in death rates for the 4 leading cancers (lung, colorectal, breast, prostate); however, over the past decade (2008-2017), reductions slowed for female breast and colorectal cancers, and halted for prostate cancer. In contrast, declines accelerated for lung cancer, from 3% annually during 2008 through 2013 to 5% during 2013 through 2017 in men and from 2% to almost 4% in women, spurring the largest ever single-year drop in overall cancer mortality of 2.2% from 2016 to 2017. Yet lung cancer still caused more deaths in 2017 than breast, prostate, colorectal, and brain cancers combined. Recent mortality declines were also dramatic for melanoma of the skin in the wake of US Food and Drug Administration approval of new therapies for metastatic disease, escalating to 7% annually during 2013 through 2017 from 1% during 2006 through 2010 in men and women aged 50 to 64 years and from 2% to 3% in those aged 20 to 49 years; annual declines of 5% to 6% in individuals aged 65 years and older are particularly striking because rates in this age group were increasing prior to 2013. It is also notable that long-term rapid increases in liver cancer mortality have attenuated in women and stabilized in men. In summary, slowing momentum for some cancers amenable to early detection is juxtaposed with notable gains for other common cancers.
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            Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

            First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial.
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              Integrated Genomic Analyses of Ovarian Carcinoma

              Summary The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has analyzed mRNA expression, miRNA expression, promoter methylation, and DNA copy number in 489 high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas (HGS-OvCa) and the DNA sequences of exons from coding genes in 316 of these tumors. These results show that HGS-OvCa is characterized by TP53 mutations in almost all tumors (96%); low prevalence but statistically recurrent somatic mutations in 9 additional genes including NF1, BRCA1, BRCA2, RB1, and CDK12; 113 significant focal DNA copy number aberrations; and promoter methylation events involving 168 genes. Analyses delineated four ovarian cancer transcriptional subtypes, three miRNA subtypes, four promoter methylation subtypes, a transcriptional signature associated with survival duration and shed new light on the impact on survival of tumors with BRCA1/2 and CCNE1 aberrations. Pathway analyses suggested that homologous recombination is defective in about half of tumors, and that Notch and FOXM1 signaling are involved in serous ovarian cancer pathophysiology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ
                BMJ
                BMJ
                1756-1833
                November 09 2020
                : m3773
                Article
                10.1136/bmj.m3773
                33168565
                c3044835-3cbb-4aa2-a0e5-29801bfe072b
                © 2020

                http://www.bmj.com/company/legal-information/terms-conditions/legal-information/tdm-licencepolicy

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