Background/Aims: Hemodialysis patients are often hospitalized, during which time they require continuity of care in the inpatient setting. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes associated with a conversion algorithm from outpatient epoetin alfa to inpatient darbepoetin alfa in hospitalized hemodialysis patients at the St. Elizabeth Health Center. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of hemodialysis patient hospital admissions after a therapeutic interchange from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa was implemented at St. Elizabeth Health Center. Chronic hemodialysis patients admitted from December 2002 to October 2003 were identified as part of a therapeutic interchange cohort receiving inpatient darbepoetin alfa after conversion from outpatient epoetin alfa according to the Aranesp® package insert during their hospitalization. After discharge, these patients were returned to their preadmission outpatient epoetin alfa dosages and frequencies. Patients admitted prior to implementation of the therapeutic interchange (January 2002 to April 2002) received epoetin alfa during hospitalization and served as a historical control. Hemoglobin values were recorded prior to hospital admission, at the time of discharge, and 30 days after discharge. Results: Mean hemoglobin levels declined from preadmission to discharge, in both the interchange and historical cohorts (6.6 and 2.5%, respectively) and rebounded at 30 days after discharge. Using a linear regression model, the only variables significantly associated with the hemoglobin level at discharge were the hemoglobin level before admission and receipt of a blood transfusion. Conclusion: An algorithm-based conversion from outpatient epoetin alfa to inpatient darbepoetin alfa for hospitalized chronic hemodialysis patients utilizing the dose conversion table specified in the Aranesp® package insert is associated with hemoglobin outcomes similar to inpatient epoetin alfa.