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      Aprendizagem e memória de Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) Translated title: Learning and memory in Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae)

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          Abstract

          O parasitoide de ovos Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 é um importante agente de controle natural de percevejos e seu sucesso de parasitismo está associado à habilidade para a localização do hospedeiro, sendo a aprendizagem e a memória um dos fatores que podem influenciar esta interação. O trabalho avaliou a capacidade de aprendizagem e tempo de retenção da memória de T. podisi ao extrato de capim-limão [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poales, Poaceae)], em diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento da fase imatura. Ovos de Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) parasitados por T. podisi foram individualizados em tubos de vidro contendo papel filtro com extrato de capim-limão ou solvente acetona (controle) e mantidos em diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento jovem dos parasitoides. Após a emergência, fêmeas de T. podisi foram testadas em olfatômetro tipo "Y" aos odores de ambos tratamentos. Fêmeas inexperientes foram submetidas aos mesmos odores das experientes. Para avaliar a memória, fêmeas oriundas de ovos que permaneceram em contato com o extrato de capim-limão por todo o desenvolvimento do estágio imaturo, foram testadas, após 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas de idade ao odor de capim-limão e acetona. Fêmeas que permaneceram em contato com o capim-limão por toda a fase jovem, direcionaram-se preferencialmente para este extrato, diferente das inexperientes ou das expostas à acetona, as quais preferiram o solvente. A presença do capim-limão, durante todo o estágio do desenvolvimento imaturo, alterou a orientação quimiotáxica de T. podisi, desencadeando aprendizagem nestes organismos, a qual se manteve por até 72 horas.

          Translated abstract

          The egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 is an important natural control agent of stink bugs. Its success as a parasitoid depends on its host-locating ability, which may be influenced by learning and memory. This study used lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poales, Poaceae)] extract to assess the capacity for learning and memory retention time of T. podisi at different developmental stages of the immature phase. Eggs of Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) parasitized by T. podisi and at different parasitoid juvenile developmental stages were isolated in glass tubes containing filter paper with lemongrass extract or acetone solvent (control). After emergence, T. podisi females were tested in a Y-tube olfactometer containing both scents. Inexperienced females were subjected to the same scents as experienced. To assess memory, females that emerged from eggs that were in contact with lemongrass extract throughout the immature developmental stage were given a choice between lemongrass extract and acetone when they were 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours old. Females that had contact with the lemongrass during the juvenile phase preferred lemongrass, while inexperienced females or those exposed to acetone chose the solvent. The presence of lemongrass all through the immature developmental stage altered the chemotaxic orientation of T. podisi and prompted learning in these organisms that lasted for up to 72 hours.

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          Development of the Drosophila mushroom bodies: sequential generation of three distinct types of neurons from a neuroblast.

          The mushroom bodies (MBs) are prominent structures in the Drosophila brain that are essential for olfactory learning and memory. Characterization of the development and projection patterns of individual MB neurons will be important for elucidating their functions. Using mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (Lee, T. and Luo, L. (1999) Neuron 22, 451-461), we have positively marked the axons and dendrites of multicellular and single-cell mushroom body clones at specific developmental stages. Systematic clonal analysis demonstrates that a single mushroom body neuroblast sequentially generates at least three types of morphologically distinct neurons. Neurons projecting into the (gamma) lobe of the adult MB are born first, prior to the mid-3rd instar larval stage. Neurons projecting into the alpha' and beta' lobes are born between the mid-3rd instar larval stage and puparium formation. Finally, neurons projecting into the alpha and beta lobes are born after puparium formation. Visualization of individual MB neurons has also revealed how different neurons acquire their characteristic axon projections. During the larval stage, axons of all MB neurons bifurcate into both the dorsal and medial lobes. Shortly after puparium formation, larval MB neurons are selectively pruned according to birthdays. Degeneration of axon branches makes early-born gamma neurons retain only their main processes in the peduncle, which then project into the adult gamma lobe without bifurcation. In contrast, the basic axon projections of the later-born (alpha'/beta') larval neurons are preserved during metamorphosis. This study illustrates the cellular organization of mushroom bodies and the development of different MB neurons at the single cell level. It allows for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of mushroom body development.
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            BioEstat – Aplicações estatísticas nas áreas das ciências bio-médicas

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              Insect Behavior

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                isz
                Iheringia. Série Zoologia
                Iheringia, Sér. Zool.
                Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre )
                1678-4766
                September 2013
                : 103
                : 3
                : 266-271
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Brazil
                Article
                S0073-47212013000300009
                10.1590/S0073-47212013000300009
                c31fef10-f2fc-4a6b-a78d-09ba63dadda7

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0073-4721&lng=en
                Categories
                ZOOLOGY

                Animal science & Zoology
                Egg parasitoid,experience,biological control,chemotaxy,Parasitoide de ovos,experiência,controle biológico,quimiotaxia

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