In Parkinson's disease (PD), neuronal cells undergo mitotic catastrophe and endoreduplication prior to cell death; however, the regulatory mechanisms remain to be defined. In this study, we investigated cell cycle regulation of DNA polymerase β (poly β) in rotenone-based dopaminergic cellular and animal models. Incubation with a low concentration (0.25 µM) of rotenone for 1.5 to 7 days resulted in a flattened cell body and decreased DNA replication during S phase, whereas a high concentration (2 µM) of rotenone exposure resulted in enlarged, multi-nucleated cells and converted the mitotic cycle into endoreduplication. Consistently, DNA poly β, which is mainly involved in DNA repair synthesis, was upregulated to a high level following exposure to 2 µM rotenone. The abrogation of DNA poly β by siRNA transfection or dideoxycytidine (DDC) treatment attenuated the rotenone-induced endoreduplication. The cell cycle was reactivated in cyclin D-expressing dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) of rats following stereotactic (ST) infusion of rotenone. Increased DNA poly β expression was observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the substantia nigra pars reticulate (SNr) of rotenone-treated rats. Collectively, in the in vitro model of rotenone-induced mitotic catastrophe, the overexpression of DNA poly β promotes endoreduplication; in the in vivo model, the upregulation of DNA poly β and cell cycle reentry were also observed in the adult rat substantia nigra. Therefore, the cell cycle regulation of DNA poly β may be involved in the pathological processes of PD, which results in the induction of endoreduplication.