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      Mechanisms of plant cell wall surveillance in response to pathogens, cell wall-derived ligands and the effect of expansins to infection resistance or susceptibility

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          Abstract

          Cell wall integrity is tightly regulated and maintained given that non-physiological modification of cell walls could render plants vulnerable to biotic and/or abiotic stresses. Expansins are plant cell wall-modifying proteins active during many developmental and physiological processes, but they can also be produced by bacteria and fungi during interaction with plant hosts. Cell wall alteration brought about by ectopic expression, overexpression, or exogenous addition of expansins from either eukaryote or prokaryote origin can in some instances provide resistance to pathogens, while in other cases plants become more susceptible to infection. In these circumstances altered cell wall mechanical properties might be directly responsible for pathogen resistance or susceptibility outcomes. Simultaneously, through membrane receptors for enzymatically released cell wall fragments or by sensing modified cell wall barrier properties, plants trigger intracellular signaling cascades inducing defense responses and reinforcement of the cell wall, contributing to various infection phenotypes, in which expansins might also be involved. Here, we review the plant immune response activated by cell wall surveillance mechanisms, cell wall fragments identified as responsible for immune responses, and expansin’s roles in resistance and susceptibility of plants to pathogen attack.

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          Hemicelluloses.

          Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides in plant cell walls that have beta-(1-->4)-linked backbones with an equatorial configuration. Hemicelluloses include xyloglucans, xylans, mannans and glucomannans, and beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans. These types of hemicelluloses are present in the cell walls of all terrestrial plants, except for beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans, which are restricted to Poales and a few other groups. The detailed structure of the hemicelluloses and their abundance vary widely between different species and cell types. The most important biological role of hemicelluloses is their contribution to strengthening the cell wall by interaction with cellulose and, in some walls, with lignin. These features are discussed in relation to widely accepted models of the primary wall. Hemicelluloses are synthesized by glycosyltransferases located in the Golgi membranes. Many glycosyltransferases needed for biosynthesis of xyloglucans and mannans are known. In contrast, the biosynthesis of xylans and beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans remains very elusive, and recent studies have led to more questions than answers.
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            Structure and functions of the bacterial microbiota of plants.

            Plants host distinct bacterial communities on and inside various plant organs, of which those associated with roots and the leaf surface are best characterized. The phylogenetic composition of these communities is defined by relatively few bacterial phyla, including Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. A synthesis of available data suggests a two-step selection process by which the bacterial microbiota of roots is differentiated from the surrounding soil biome. Rhizodeposition appears to fuel an initial substrate-driven community shift in the rhizosphere, which converges with host genotype-dependent fine-tuning of microbiota profiles in the selection of root endophyte assemblages. Substrate-driven selection also underlies the establishment of phyllosphere communities but takes place solely at the immediate leaf surface. Both the leaf and root microbiota contain bacteria that provide indirect pathogen protection, but root microbiota members appear to serve additional host functions through the acquisition of nutrients from soil for plant growth. Thus, the plant microbiota emerges as a fundamental trait that includes mutualism enabled through diverse biochemical mechanisms, as revealed by studies on plant growth-promoting and plant health-promoting bacteria.
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              Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology.

              Many plant bacteriologists, if not all, feel that their particular microbe should appear in any list of the most important bacterial plant pathogens. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all bacterial pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate the bacterial pathogens they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 458 votes from the international community, and allowed the construction of a Top 10 bacterial plant pathogen list. The list includes, in rank order: (1) Pseudomonas syringae pathovars; (2) Ralstonia solanacearum; (3) Agrobacterium tumefaciens; (4) Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; (5) Xanthomonas campestris pathovars; (6) Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovars; (7) Erwinia amylovora; (8) Xylella fastidiosa; (9) Dickeya (dadantii and solani); (10) Pectobacterium carotovorum (and Pectobacterium atrosepticum). Bacteria garnering honourable mentions for just missing out on the Top 10 include Clavibacter michiganensis (michiganensis and sepedonicus), Pseudomonas savastanoi and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This review article presents a short section on each bacterium in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intention of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant bacteriology community, as well as laying down a benchmark. It will be interesting to see, in future years, how perceptions change and which bacterial pathogens enter and leave the Top 10. © 2012 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2012 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                23 August 2022
                2022
                : 13
                : 969343
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Instituto de Biotecnología , Cuernavaca, Mexico
                [2] 2Centro de Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Cuernavaca, Mexico
                Author notes

                Edited by: Giulia Malacarne, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy

                Reviewed by: Aurélien Boisson-Dernier, Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, France; Luis Morales-Quintana, Autonomous University of Chile, Chile; Timo Engelsdorf, University of Marburg, Germany

                *Correspondence: Claudia Martinez-Anaya, claudia.martinez@ 123456ibt.unam.mx

                This article was submitted to Plant Pathogen Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2022.969343
                9445675
                36082287
                c3303191-8f08-426a-a873-e9154ec997b3
                Copyright © 2022 Narváez-Barragán, Tovar-Herrera, Guevara-García, Serrano and Martinez-Anaya.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 14 June 2022
                : 11 July 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 164, Pages: 13, Words: 11311
                Funding
                Funded by: Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, doi 10.13039/501100006087;
                Award ID: IN209420
                Award ID: IN203622
                Award ID: IN203720
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Review

                Plant science & Botany
                expansin,cell wall oligosaccharides,microbial pathogen,defense response,resistance/susceptibility

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